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11 FrincGtcii; IT.' J. fi 

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'Vd^ rThS "SS? 1849 
Scuider, John, 1798-1855. 
Dr. Scudder'S taxes lor 
little readers about tne i 












The following work, so fai as the Hindoos are con- 
cerned, is principally a compilation from the writings 
of Duff", Dubois, and others. 

Should the eyes of any Christian father or mother 
rest upon it, I would ask them if they have not a son 
or a daughter to dedicate to the missionary work. 
The duty of devoting themselves to this work of 
Christ, or at least, of consecrating to it their money, 
their efforts, and their prayers, is the great duty to 
be perseveringly and prayerfully impressed on the 
minds of our children. A generation thus trained 
would, with aid from on high, soon effect the moral 
revolution of the world. Blessed will be that father, 
blessed will be that mother, who shall take any part 
in such a training. And I would add, too, blessed 
will be that pastor, and blessed will be that Sabbath- 
school teacher, who shall come up to their help. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S49, by 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern 

District of New York. 


General Remarks, 7 

The Color ami Ornaments of the Hindoos, .... 11 

Dress, Houses, Eating, and Salutation of the Hindoos, . 21 

Marriage among the Hindoos, 31 

Death and Funerals among the Hindoos, 37 

The Gods of the Hindoos, 13 

The Three Hundred and Thirty Millions of the Gods of the 
Hindoos — The Creation of the — The Transmigra- 
tion of Souls — The diflerent Hells, 47 

Hindoo Castes, 53 

Hindoo Temples — Cars — Procession of Idol.-*, . . . . C2 

Festivals of the Hindoos, .... 73 

The worship of the Serpent, 7i) 


The River Ganges, 83 

The Goddess Durga, 92 

The Goddess Karle, 102 

Self-tortures of the Hindoos, 112 

The Suttee, or Burning of Widows, 126 

Horrid Cruelties of the Kliunds, 137 

The revengeful Nature of the Hindoo Religion, . . . 155 

The Deception of the Hindoos, 158 

Superstition of the Hindoos, 160 

Burmah, China, etc., etc., 165 

The duty of Praying and Contributing for the Spread of the 
Gospel, 176 

Personal Labors among the Heathen, ...... 195 

Success of the Gospel in India and Ceylon, . 207 

DR. ^Uf^pi^Kl^GlCiiL / 





My dear Children — When I was a little 
boy, my dear mother taught me, with the ex- 
ception of the last line, the following prayer : 

" Now I lay me down to sleep, 
I pray the Lord my soul to keep ; 
If I should die before I wake, 
I pray the Lord my soul to take ; 
And this I ask for Jesus' sake." 

Though I am now more than fifty years old, 
I often like to say this prayer before I go to 
sleep. Have you ever learned it, my dear 


children ? If you have not, I hope that you 
will learn it noiv ; and I hope, too, that when 
you say your other prayers at night, you will 
also say this. I think that you would be glad 
to see how this prayer looks in the Tamul lan- 
guage — the language in which I am now 
preaching the Grospel, and in which I hope 
that some of you will hereafter tell the heathen 
of the Saviour. The following is a translation 
of it: 

[lu Qu T /Ti-rey <5 skeins Q&TSry cm u (S zk QcK) 637 

I wish that all the little heathen children 
knew this prayer ; but their fathers and moth- 
ers do not teach it to them. Their fathers and 
mothers teach them to pray to gods of gold, or 
brass, or stone. They take them, while they 
are very young, to their temples, and teach 
them to put up their hands before an idol, and 
say, " Swammie." Swammie means Lord. 
As idolatry is the root of all sin, these children, 
as you may suppose, in early life become very 
wicked. They disobey their parents, speak 

GEN H R A I- R I'. M A Fi K f< . y 

bad words, call ill names, swear, steal, and 
tell lies. They also throw themselves on the 
ground in anger, and in their rage they tear 
their hair, or throw dirt over their heads, and 
do many other wicked things. 

Let me give you an instance, to show you 
how they will speak bad words. A few months 
ago, a little girl about twelve years of age 
was brought to me, with two tumors in her 
back. To cut them out, I had to make an in- 
cision about eight inches in length ; and as one 
of these tumors had extended under the shoul- 
der-blade, she suffered much before the opera- 
tion was finished. AYhile I was operating she 
cried out, "I will pull out my eyes." "I will 
pull out my tongue." " Kurn kertta tayvun." 
The translation of this is, '' The blind-eyed 
god." By this expression, she meant to say, 
What kind of a god are you, noiPto look upon 
me, and help me in my distress? If this little 
girl had had a Christian father to teach her to 
love the Saviour, she would not have used 
such bad language. But this father was even 
more wicked than his daughter, inasmuch as 
those who grow old in sin, are worse than 
those who have not sinned so loner. T never 


saw a more hard-hearted parent. That he 
was so, will appear from his conduct after the 
operation was finished. He left his daughter, 
and went off to his home, about forty miles 
distant. Before going, he said to his wife, or 
to one who came with her, " If the child gets 
well, bring her home ; if she dies, take her 
away and bury her." 

I hope, my dear children, that when you 
think of the wicked little girl just mentioned, 
you will be warned never to speak bad words. 
God will be very angry with you, if you do. 
Did you never read what is said in 2 Kings, 
2d chapter and 23d verse, about the little chil- 
dren who mocked the prophet Elijah, and spoke 
bad words to him. 0, how sorry must they 
have felt for their conduct, when they saw the 
paws of those great bears lifted up to tear them 
in pieces, and which did tear them in pieces. 
Besides all this, little children who speak bad 
words can never go to heaven. God will cast 
them into the great fire. Have you ever 
spoken bad words ? If so, God is angry with 
you, and he will not forgive you unless you 
are sorry that you have done so, and seek his 
forgiveness through the blood of his dear Son. 




My dear Children — If you will take a piece 
of mahogany in your hands, and view its dif- 
ferent shades, you will have a pretty good rep- 
resentation of the color of a large class of this 
heathen people — I say, of a large class, for there 
is a great variety of colors. Some appear to 
be almost of a bronze color. Some are quite 
black. It is difficult to account for the difter- 
ent colors which we often see in the same fam- 
ily. For instance, one child will be of the red- 
dish hue to which I just referred ; another will 
be quite dark. When I was in Ceylon, two 
sisters of this description joined my church. 
One was called Sevappe, or the red one ; the 
other was called Karappe, or the black one. 

This people Very much resemble the English 
and Americans in their features. Many of 
them are very beautiful. This remark will 
apply particularly to children, and more espe- 
cially to the children of Brahmins and others, 
who are delicately brought up. But however 
beautiful any of this people may be, they try 


to make themselves appear more so, by the 
ornaments which they wear. These ornaments 
are of very different kinds, and are made of 
gold, silver, brass, precious stones, or glass. 
All are fond of ear-rings. Sometimes four or 
five are worn in each ear, consisting of solid 
gold, the lower one being the largest, and the 
upper one the smallest. Some men wear a 
gold ornament attached to the middle of the 
ear, in which a precious stone is inserted. 
Sometimes they wear very large circular ear- 
rings, made of the wire of copper, around 
which gold is twisted so as to cover every part 
of it. These are frequently ornamented with 
precious stones. [The females, in addition to 
ear-rings, have an ornament which passes 
through the rim of the ear, near the head, half 
of it being seen above the rim, and half of it 
below it. An ornamental chain is sometimes 
attached to this, which goes some distance 
back, when it is lost in the hair. They some- 
times also wear a jewel in the middle of the 
rim of the ear, and another on that little for- 
ward point which strikes your finger when 
you attempt to put it into the ear. Nose jew- 
els also are worn. Sometimes three are worn 


at the same time. Holes are made through 
eaeh side of the lower part of the nose, and 
through the cartilage, or that substance which 
divides the nostrils, through which they are 
suspended. The higher and wealthier females 
wear a profusion of ornaments of gold and 
pearls around the neck. 

A very pretty ornament, about three inches 
in diameter, having the a])pearance of gold, is 
also frequently worn by them on that part of 
the head where the females in America put up 
their hair in a knot. In addition to this, the 
little girls sometimes wear one or two similar 
but smaller ornaments below this, as well as 
a\i ornament at the end of the long braid of 
hair which hangs down over the middle of their 
backs. Occasionally the whole, or the greater 
part of this braid is covered with an ornament 
of the same materials with those just described. 
They also wear an ornament extending from 
the crown of the head to the forehead, just in 
that spot where the little girls to whom I am 
writing part their hair. Attached to this, I 
have seen a circular piece of gold filled with 
rubies. Rin<?s are worn on the toes as well as 
on the fin2-ers. and bracelets of s^old or silver 


on the wrists. Anklets similar to bracelets, 
and tinkling ornaments are worn on the ankles. 
The poor, who cannot afford to wear gold or 
silver bracelets, have them made of glass 
stained with different colors. I have seen 
nearly a dozen on each wrist. 

The little boys wear gold or silver bracelets ; 
also gold or silver anklets. I jnst alluded to 
finofer-rinsrs. I have seen a dozen on the same 
hand. In this part of the country, the little 
opening which is made in the ears of the chil- 
dren is gradually distended until it becomes 
very large. At first, the opening is only large 
enough to admit a wire. After this has been 
worn for a short time, a knife is introduced 
into the ear in the direction of the opening, 
and an incision made large enough to admit a 
little cotton. This is succeeded by a roll of 
oiled cloth, and by a peculiar shrub, the Eng- 
lish name of which, if it has any, I do not 
know. When the hole becomes sufficiently 
large, a heavy ring of lead, about an inch in 
diameter, is introduced. This soon increases 
the size of the opening to such an extent, that 
a second, and afterwards a third, a fourth, and 
a fifth ring are added. By these weights, the 


lower parts of the ear are drawn down some- 
times very nearly, or quite to the shoulders. 
Not unfrequently the little girls, when they 
run, are obliged to catch hold of these rings to 
prevent the injury which they would receive 
by their striking against their necks. I need 
hardly say, that in due time, these rings are 
removed, and ornamented rings are substituted. 

A different plan is pursued with the Moham- 
medan little girls. They have their ears bored 
from the top to the bottom of the ear. The 
openings wdiich are at first made are small, 
and are never enlarged. A ring is inserted in 
each of these openings. I have seen a little 
girl to-day in whose ears I counted twenty- 
four rings. 

Flowers in great profusion arc sometimes 
used to add to the adornment of the jewels. 

I cannot conclude my account of the jewels 
of the little girls, without giving you a descrip- 
tion of the appearance of a little patient of 
mine who came here a few days ago, loaded 
with trinkets. I will give it in the words of 
my daughter, which she wrote in part while the 
girl was here. " On the I7th, a little dancing- 
girl came to see us. She was adorned with 


many jewels, some of which were very beautiful. 
The jewel in the top of the ear was a circle, 
nearly the size of a dollar. It was set with 
rubies. Nine pearls were suspended from it. 
In the middle of the ear was a jewel of a dia- 
mond shape, set with rubies and pearls. The 
lowest jewel in the ear was shaped like a bell. 
It was set with rubies, and from it hung a row 
of pearls. Close by the ear, suspended from 
the hair, was a jewel which reached below her 
ear. It consisted of six bells of gold, one 
above the other. Around each was a small 
row of pearls, which reached nearly to the bell 
below, thus forming a jewel resembling very 
many drops of pearls. It is the most beautiful 
jewel that I ever saw. In the right side of 
her nose was a white stone, set with gold, in 
the shape of a star. From it hung a large 
pearl. There was a hole bored in the partition 
betw^een the nostrils. This hole had a jewel 
in it, about an inch in length, in the middle of 
which was a white stone with a ruby on each 
side. It also had a ruby on the top. From 
the white stone hung another, of a similar 
color, attached to it by a piece of gold. In the 
left side of the nose was a jewel about an inch 


in diameter. It was somewhat in the shape 
of a half-moon, and was set with rubies, pearls, 
emeralds, etc. etc. This jewel hung below her 
mouth. On the back of her head was a large, 
round gold piece, three inches in diameter. 
Another piece about two inches in diameter, 
hung below this. Her hair was braided in 
one braid, and hung down her back. At the 
bottom of this were three large tassels of silk, 
mounted with gold. Her eyebrows and eye- 
lashes were painted with black. Her neck 
was covered with jewels of such beauty, and 
of such a variety, that it is impossible for me 
to describe them. Around her ankles were 
lars^e rinses which looked like braided silver. 
To these were attached very many little bells, 
which rung as she walked. I believe all danc- 
ing-girls wear these rings. We felt very sad 
when we thou2:ht that she was dedicated to a 
life of infamy and shame." 

There is an ornament worn by the followers 
of the god Siva, on their arms, or necks, or in 
their hair. It is called the lin^inn. The 
nature of this is so utterly abominable, that I 
cannot tell you a word about it. 

Married women wear an ornament })eculiar 

Scudiler's Tales. 2 


to themselves. It is called the tahly. It is a 
piece of gold, on which is engraven the image 
of some one of their gods. This is fastened 
around the neck by a short yellow string, con- 
taining one hundred and eight threads of great 
fineness. Various ceremonies are performed 
before it is applied, and the gods, of whom I 
will tell you something by and by, with their 
wives, are called upon to give their blessing. 
When these ceremonies are finished, the tahly 
is brought on a waiter, ornamented with sweet- 
smelling flowers, and is tied by the bridegroom 
to the neck of the bride. This ornament is 
never taken off, unless her husband dies. In 
such a case she is deprived of it, to wear it no 
more for ever — deprived of it, after various 
ceremonies, by her nearest female relative, 
who cuts the thread by which it is suspended, 
and removes it. After this a barber is called, 
who shaves her head, and she becomes, in the 
eyes of the people, a despised widow — no more 
to wear any ornament about her neck but a 
plain one — no more to stain her face with yel- 
low water, nor to wear on her forehead those 
marks which are considered by the natives as 
among their chief ornaments. 

1 1 I .N 1) (J (J ( t U N A .M i: N T .-^ . 1 C) 

1 liuvti now U)ld you yonietliiiig about the 
jewels of this people. I hope that you will 
never be disposed to imitate tlieni, and load 
your bodies with such useless thin^rs. They 
are not only useless, but tend to encoura<^e 
pride and vanity. All that you need is, the 
'' Pearl of great j)rice," even Jesus. Adorn 
yourself with this Pearl, and you will be beau- 
tiful indeed — beautiful even in the sight of 
your heavenly Father. Have you this Pearl 
-i)f great price, my dear children ? Tell me, 
have you this Pearl of great price ? l£ you 
have not, what have you ? 

I just now alluded to those marks which the 
natives consider amonsr their chief ornaments. 
These are difl'erent amons: different sects. The 
followers of Siva rub ashes on their foreheads. 
These ashes are generally prepared by burn- 
ing what in tiie Tanuil lans^ua^^e is called 
'^/r6^ chaarne. They also apply these ashes 
in streaks, generally three together, on their 
breasts, and on their arms. Jt^ome besmear 
their whole bodies with them. 

The followers of Vrishnoo wear a very dif- 
ferent ornament from that just described. It 
consists of a perpendicular line drawn on th^ 


forehead, generally of a red or yellow color, 
and a white line on each side of it, which 
unite at the bottom with the middle line, and 
form a trident. 

Another ornament consists of a small circle, 
which is called pottu. This is stamped in the 
middle of the forehead. Sometimes it is red, 
sometimes yellow or black. Large numbers 
of women, in this part of the country, wash 
their faces with a yellow water, made so by 
dissolving in it a paste made of a yellow root 
and common shell- lime. The Brahmins . fre- 
quently, instead of rubbing ashes, draw a hori- 
zontal line over the middle of their foreheads, 
to show that they have bathed and are pure. 
Sometimes the people ornament themselves 
with a paste of sandal-wood. They rub them- 
selves from head to foot with it. This has a 
very odoriferous smell. 

When the people are loaded with jewels, and 
covered with the marks which I have just de- 
scribed, they think themselves to be highly or- 
namented. But after all, " they are like unto 
whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beau- 
tiful outward, but are within full of dead men's 
bones, and of all uncleanness." The " Pearl 


of great price," to which I before alluded, the 
only Pearl which is of any value in the sight 
of Him who looketh at the heart, and not at 
the outward appearance, they possess not. 
Millions in this Eastern world have never even 
heard of it. how incessantly ought you to 
pray that they may come into possession of it. 
How gladly should you give your money to 
send it to them. I wish, in this place, to ask 
you one question. Who of you expect, by and 
by, to become missionaries to this land, to tell 
this people of the Pearl of great price ? 



My dear Children — The dress of the Hin- 
doos is very simple. A single piece of cloth 
uncut, about three yards in length and one in 
width, wrapped round the loins, with a shawl 
thrown over the shoulders, constitutes the 
usual apparel of the people of respectability. 
These garments are often fringed with red 
silk or gold. The native ladies frequently 


almost encase themselves in cloth or silk. 
Under such circumstances, their cloths are 
perhaps twenty yards in length. Most of the 
native gentlemen now wear turbans, an orna- 
ment which they have borrowed from the Mo- 
hammedans. This consists of a long piece of 
very fine stuff, sometimes twenty yards in 
length and one in breadth. With this they 
encircle the head in many folds. 

Those who are employed by European or 
Mohammedan princes, wear a long robe of 
muslin, or very fine cloth. This also, is in 
imitation of the Mohammedans, and was for- 
merly unknown in the country. 

The houses of the Hindoos are generally 
very plainly built. In the country, they are 
commonly made of earth, and thatched with 
straw. In the cities, they are covered with 
tiles. The kitchen is situated in the most re- 
tired part of the house. In the houses of the 
Brahmins, the kitchen-door is always barred, 
to prevent strangers from looking upon their 
earthen vessels ; for if they should happen to 
see them, their look would pollute them to 
such a degree that they must be broken to 
pieces. The hearth is generally placed on the 


south-west side, which is said to be the side of 
the ^od of fire ^ because they say that this god 
actually dwells there. 

The domestic customs of this people arc 
very different from ours. The men and women 
do not eat together. The husband first eats, 
tlien the wife. The wife waits upon the hus- 
band. After she has cooked the rice, she brings 
a brass plate, if they are possessors of one ; or 
if not, a piece of a plantain-leaf, and puts it 
down on the mat before him. She then bails 
out the rice, places it upon the leaf, and after- 
wards pours the currie over it. This boini. 
done, the husband proceeds to mix up the cur- 
rie and the rice with his hands, and puts it 
into his mouth. He never uses a knife and 
fork, as is customary with us. Tiie currie of 
which I have spoken is a sauce of a yellow 
color, owing to the munchely a yellow root 
which they put in it. This and onions, kot- 
tamaly-seeds, mustard, serakum, pepper, etc., 
constitute the ingredients of the currie. Some 
add to these ghea, or melted butter, and cocoa- 
nut milk. By the cocoa-nut milk, I do not 
mean the water of the cocoa-nut. This — except 
in the very young cocoa-nut, when it is a most 


delicious beverage — is never used. The milk 
is squeezed from the meat of the cocoa-nut, 
after it has been reduced to a pulp by means 
of an indented circular iron which they use 
for this purpose. 

After the husband has eaten, the wife brings 
water for him to wash his hands. This being 
done, she supplies him with vettalay, paakku, 
shell-lime, and tobacco, which he puts into 
his mouth as his dessert. The vettalay is a 
very spicy leaf. Why they use paakku, I do 
not know. It is a nut, which^they cut into 
small pieces, but it has not much taste. Some- 
times the wife brings her husband a segar. 
This people, I am sorry to say, are great 
smokers and chewers, practices of which I 
hope that you, my dear children, will never 
be guilty. In Ceylon, it is customary for fe- 
males to smoke. Frequently, after the hus- 
band has smoked for a while, he hands the 
segar to his w^ife. She then puts it into her 
mouth, and smokes. 

Several years ago, one of the schoolmasters 
in that island became a Christian. After he 
had partaken of the Lord's supper, his wife con- 
sidered him so defiled, that she would not put 


his segar into her mouth for a month afterwards. 
She, however, has since become a Christian. 

I spoke just now of the plantain-leaf. This 
leaf is sometimes six feet long, and in some 
places a foot and a half wide. It is an un- 
broken leaf, with a large stem running through 
the middle of it. It is one of the handsomest 
of leaves. Pieces enough can be torn from a 
single leaf, to take the place of a dozen plates. 
When quite young, it is an excellent applica- 
tion to surfaces which have been blistered. 

"When this people eat, they do not use tables 
and chairs. They sit down on mats, and 
double their legs under them, after the man- 
ner of our friends the tailors in America, when 
they sew. This is the way in which the na- 
tives, as a general thing, sit in our churches. 
It is not common to have benches or pews for 
them. Carpenters and other tradesmen also 
sit down either on a board, or on the ground, 
or on their legs, when they work. It would 
divert you much to see their manoeuvring. If 
a carpenter, for instance, wants to make a 
little peg, he will take a small piece of board, 
and place it in an erect position between his 
feet, the soles of which are turned inward so 



as to press upon the board. He then takes his 
chisel in one hand, and his mallet in the other, 
and cuts off a small piece. Afterwards he 
holds the piece in one hand, and while he 
shapes it with his chisel with the other, he 
steadies it by pressing it against his great toe 



The blacksmiths, with the exception of those 
who use the sledge-hammer, sit as do the car- 
penters, while they hammer the iron. I wish 
you could see them at work with their simple 
apparatus. They have small anvils, which 
they place in a hole made in a log of wood 
which is buried in the ground. They do not 
use sucli bellows as vou see in America. 


Theirs consist of two leather bags, about a 
foot wide and a foot and a half long, each 
liaving a nozzle at one end. The other end is 
left open to admit the air. When they \vish 
to blow the fire, they extend these bags to let 
in the air. They then close thcni by means 
of the thumb on one side, and the fingers on 
the other, and press them down towards the 
nozzle of the bellows, which forces the air 
through them into the fire. I should have 
said before, that the nozzle of the bellows 
passes through a small semicircular mound of 
dried mud. 

I mentioned that the natives do not use ta- 
bles and chairs in their houses. . Neither do 
they, as a general thing, use bedsteads. They 
have no beds. They sleep on mats, which are 
spread down on the floor. Sometimes they use 
a cotton bolster for their heads. More gener- 
ally, their pillows are hard boards, which they 
put under the mat. In addition to cooking, 
the females have to prepare the rice for this 
purpose, by taking it out of the husk. This 
they do by beating it in a mortar about two 
feet high. The pestle with which they pound 
if, is about five feet long, made of wood, wnth 


an iron rim around the lower part of it. Three 
women can work at these mortars at the same 
time. Of course they have to be very skilful 
in the use of the pestle, so as not to interfere 
with each others' operations. Sometimes, while 
thus engaged, the children, who are generally 
at play near their mothers, put their hands on 
the edge of the mortars. In such cases, when 
the pestle happens to strike the edge, their fin- 
gers are taken off in a moment. 

The Hindoos have many modes of salutation. 
In some places they raise their right hand to 
the heart. In others, they simply stretch it out 
towards the person who is passing, if they know 
him, for they never salute persons with whom 
they are not acquainted. 

In many places there is no show of saluta 
tion. When they meet their acquaintances 
they content themselves by saying a friendl}/ 
word or two in passing, and then pursue their 
way. They have borrowed the word salam 
from the Mohammedans. They salute both 
Mohammedans and Europeans with this word, 
at the sam^e time raising their hand to the fore- 
head. When they address persons of high rank, 
they give them their salam thrice, touching 


the ground as often with both hands, and then 
lifting them up to their foreheads. 

The other castes salute the Brahmins by 
joining the hands and elevating them to the 
forehead, or sometimes over the head. It is 
accompanied with andamayya^ which means. 
Hail, respected lord. The Bralimins stretch 
out their hands and say, aaseervaathum — ben- 

Another very respectful kind of salutation 
consists in lowerinsr both hands to the feet of 
the person to be honored, or even in falling 
down and embracing them. 

Of all the forms of salutation, the most re- 
spectful is the shaashlaa?ig-kum, or prostration, 
in which the feet, the knees, the stomach, the 
head, and the arms, all touch the ground. In 
doing this, they throw themselves at their whole 
length on the ground, and stretch out both arms 
above their heads. This is practised before 
priests, and in the presence of an assembly, 
when they appear before it to beg pardon for 
a crime. 

Relations, who have long been separated, 
testify their joy when they meet by chucking 
each other under the chin, and shedding tears 


of joy. I am not aware that grown persons 
ever kiss each other. Sometimes mothers, or 
other individuals, will put their noses to the 
cheeks of little children, and draw the air 
through them, just as we do when we smell 
any thing which is agreeable. At other times 
they will apply the thumb and first finger to 
the cheek of the child, and then apply them to 
their own noses, and, as it were, smell them. 

The women, as a mark of respect, turn their 
backs, or at least their faces aside, when they 
are in the presence of those whom they highly 
esteem. They are never permitted to sit in the 
presence of men. A married woman cannot 
do this, even in the presence of her husband. 

If a person meets another of high rank, he 
must leave the path, if on foot, or alight, if on 
horseback, and remain standing until he has 
passed. He must at the same time take off 
his slippers. He also must take off his slippers 
when he enters a house. Should he fail to do 
this, it would be considered a great impro- 

In addressing a person of note, they must 
keep at a certain distance from him, and cover 
their mouths with their hands while they are 


speaking, lest their breath, or a })article of 
moi.sture, should escape to trouble hini. 

When the Hindoos visit a person of distinc- 
tion for the fii-st time, civility requires them to 
take some present as a mark of respect, or to 
show that they come with a friendly intention; 
especially if they wish to ask some favor in 
return. When they have not the means of mak- 
ing large presents, they carry with them sugar, 
plantains, milk, and other things of this kind. 

In case of mourning, visits must always be 
made, though at a distance of a hundred miles. 
Letters of condolence would by no means be 
received as a substitute. 



Mv DEAR CniLDREN — Marriage, to the Hin- 
doos, is the greatest event of their lives. In 
the celebration of it, many ceremonies are per- 
formed. Of these I will mention some of the 
most important. If the fiither of the young 
girl is a iJrahmin, and if he is rich and liberal, 
he will frequently bear all the expenses of the 


marriage of his daughter. To give a daughter 
in marriage and to sell her, are about the same 
thing. Almost every parent makes his daugh- 
ter an article of traffic, refusing to give her up 
until the sum of money for which he consented 
to let her go, is paid. Men of distinction gen- 
erally lay out this money for jewels, which they 
present to their daughters on their wedding- 
day. You will infer from what I have just 
said, that the parties to be married have noth- 
ing to do in the choice of each other. 

There are properly but four months in the 
year in which marriages can take place, name- 
1}-, March, April, May, and June. This prob- 
ably arises from the circumstance that these 
are the hottest seasons of the year — the seasons 
when the people have more leisure to attend to 
them. From the harvest, also, which has just 
been gathered in, they are provided with means 
to perform the various ceremonies. 

The marriage ceremony lasts five days. The 
bride and bridegroom are first placed under a 
puntel, a kind of bower, covered with leaves, 
in front of the house. This is superbly adorn- 
ed. The married women then come forward, 
and perform the ceremony called arati^ which 


is as follows. Upon a plate of copper, they 
])lace a lamp made of a paste from rice flour. 
It is supplied with oil, and lighted. They then 
take hold of the plate with both hands, and 
raise it as high as the heads of the couple to 
be married, and describe a number of circles 
with the plate and lamp. This is to prevent 
the evil of any jealous looks, which certain 
persons might make. The Hindoos believe 
that great evils arise from wicked looks. They 
consider that even the gods themselves are not 
out of the reach of malicious eyes ; and there- 
fore, after they have been carried through the 
streets, the ceremony of arati is always per- 
formed, to efface the evil which they may have 
suflered from these looks. 

It ought to have been mentioned, that before 
any thing is done, they place an image of Pul- 
lian under the puntel. This god is much hon- 
ored, because he is much feared. And although 
the great ugliness of his appearance has hith- 
erto kept him without a wife, they never fail 
to pay him the greatest attention, lest he should 
in some way or other injure them. 

After arati and many other ceremonies are 
performed, the kankanan, which is merely a bit 

Scudder's Talc*. 3 


of saffron, is tied to the right wrist of the young 
man, and to the left wrist of the girl. This 
is done with great solemnity. Another re- 
markable ceremony succeeds this. The young 
man being seated with his face towards the 
east, his future father-in-law supposes that he 
beholds in him the great Yrishnoo. With this 
impression, he offers him a sacrifice, and then, 
making him put both of his feet in a new dish 
filled with cow-dung, he first washes them with 
water, then with milk, and again with water, 
accompanying the whole with suitable mun- 
trums, or prayers. 

After many other ceremonies, he takes the 
hand of his daughter and puts it into that of 
his son-in-law. He then pours water over 
them in honor of Yrishnoo. This is the most 
solemn of all the ceremonies, being the token 
of his resigning his daughter to the authority 
of the young man. She must be accompanied 
with three gifts, namely, one or more cows, 
some property in land, and a salagrama^ which 
consists of some little amulet stones in hisrh 
esteem among the Brahmins. This ceremony 
being finished, the tahly is brought to be fast- 
ened to the neck of the bride. This, as I before 

M A R R I A U E y 35 

said, is presented on a salver, decked and gar- 
nished with sweet-smellins: flowers. Incense 
is offered to it, and it is presented to the as- 
sistants, each of whom touches it and invokes 
blessings upon it. The bride then turning to- 
wards the East, the bridegroom takes the tahly, 
repeats a muntrum or prayer aloud, and ties it 
around her neck. 

Fire is then brought in, upon which the bride- 
groom ofTed's up the sacrifice of homam, which 
consists of throwing boiled rice with melted 
butter upon the fire. He then takes his bride 
by the hand, and they walk three times around 
it, wliile the incense is blazing. 

There is another ceremony, which, perhaps, 
ought to be mentioned, as it is considered by 
some to be one of much importance. Two 
baskets of bamboo are placed close together, 
one for the bride, the other for the bridegroom. 
They step into them, and two other baskets 
being brought, filled with ground rice, the hus- 
band takes up one with both hands and pours the 
contents over the head of the bride. She does 
tlie same to him. In the marriage of great prin- 
ces, pearls are sometimes used instead of rice. 

On the evening of the third day, when the 


constellations appear, the astrologer points out 
to the married pair a very small star, close to 
the middle or in the tail of Ursa Major ^ which 
he directs them to worship, and which he says 
is the wife of Yasestha. 

While the assembled guests are dining, the 
bridegroom and the bride also partake, and eat 
together from the same plate. This is a token 
of the closest union. This is the only instance 
in which they ever eat together. 

After all the ceremonies are finished, a pro- 
cession is made through the streets of the vil- 
lage. It commonly takes place in the night, 
by torchlight, accompanied with fire-works. 
The newly married pair are seated in one palan- 
quin, with their faces towards each other, both 
richly dressed. The bride, in particular, is gen- 
erally covered with jewels and precious stones. 

The procession moves slowly ; and their 
friends and relations come out of their houses, 
as they pass ; the women hailing the married 
couple with the ceremony of arati^ and the 
men with presents of silver, fruits, sugar, and 
betel. I once witnessed one of these marriage 
processions in the streets of Madras at night, 
but can give you but little idea of its magnifi- 



cence. The lamps used on the occasion could 
not be numbered. The shrubbery, which was 
drawn on carts or other vehicles, appeared ex- 
ceedingly beautiful, in consequence of the light 
reflected from the lamps. Intermingled with 
this shrubbery, were to be seen little girls ele- 
gantly dressed, and adorned with flowers on 
their heads. Many elephants, with their trap- 
pings of gold and silver and red, formed a part 
of the procession. Fire-works were also added 
to make the scene more brilliant. 



My dear Children — The death of a Hindoo 
is followed by many ridiculous ceremonies. I 
will give you a description of a few, connected 
with the death of one who has moved in one 
of the higher ranks — of a Brahmin. 

AVhen it is evident that a Brahmin has but 
a little time to live, a space is prepared with 
oarth, well spread with cow-dung, over whicli 
a cloth, that has never been worn, is spread. 
The dying man is placed upon this nt full 


length. Another cloth is wrapped around his 
loins. This being done, the ceremony of expi- 
ating his sins is performed as follows. The 
chief of the funeral brings on one plate some 
small pieces of silver or copper coin, and on an- 
other the punchakaryam, etc. A little of this 
punchakaryam is then put into his mouth, and, 
by virtue of this nauseous draught, the body is 
perfectly purified. Besides this, there is a 
general cleansing, which is accomplished by 
making the dying man recite within himself, 
if he cannot speak, the proper muntrums, by 
which he is delivered from all his sins. After 
this, a cow is introduced with her calf. Her 
horns are decorated with rings of gold or brass, 
and her neck with garlands of flowers. A pure 
cloth is laid over her body. Thus decked, she 
is led up to the sick man, who takes hold of her 
tail. Prayers are now offered up that the cow 
may conduct him, by a blessed path, to the 
next world. He then makes a gift of a cow to 
a Brahmin. This gift is considered indispen- 
sable to enable the soul to go over the river of 
fire, which it is said all must pass after death. 
Those who have made this gift, are met by one 
of these favored creatures the moment they 

DKATli AM) FUxNERALS. •,]l) 

arrive at the bank of the stream, and by her 
help, they are enabled to pass without injury 
from the flames. 

As soon as the breath has left his body, all 
who are present must weep for a reasonable 
time, and join in lamentations together. 

After various ceremonies, the body is washed, 
and a barber is called to shave his head. He 
is then clad with his finest clothes and adorned 
with jewels. He is rubbed with sandal- wood 
where the body is uncovered, and the accustom- 
ed mark is put upon his forehead. Thus dress- 
(xl, he is placed on a kind of state bed, where 
he remains until he is carried to the pile. 

After every preparation is made to bear away 
the corpse, the person who is to conduct the 
funeral, with the assistance of some relative or 
friend, strips it of its clothing and jewels, and 
covers it with a handkerchief provided for the 
occasion. The corpse is then placed on a litter. 
Those who die in a state of marriage, have their 
faces left uncovered. The litter, adorned with 
flowers and foliage, and sometimes decked with 
valuable stuffs, is borne by four Brahmins. 
The procession is arranged as follows. 

The cl)ief of tlie fnneral marches foremost, 


carrying fire in a vessel. The body follows, 
attended by the relations and friends, without 
their turbans, and with nothing on their heads 
but a bit of cloth, in token of mourning. The 
women never attend the funeral, but remain 
in the house, where they set up a hideous cry 
when the corpse is taken out. "While advanc- 
ing on the road, the custom is to stop three 
times on the way, and, at each pause, to put 
into the mouth of the dead a morsel of unboil- 
ed rice, moistened. The object of stopping is 
considered to be very important. It is not 
without reason ; for they say that persons sup- 
posed to be dead have been alive, or even when 
lifeless have been restored ; and sometimes, 
also, it has happened that the gods of the infer- 
nal regions have mistaken their aim, and seiz- 
ed one person instead of another. In any view, 
it is right to afford the opportunity for correct- 
ing these mistakes, so as not to expose to the 
flames a person who is still alive. Hence the 
propriety of these pauses, each of which con- 
tinues half of the quarter of an hour. 

Having arrived at the place for burning the 
dead, they dig a trench about six or seven feet 
in length. This is consecrated by the mun- 


trums. It is slightly sprinkled with water to 
lay the dust, and a few pieces of money in gold 
are scattered upon it. Here the pile is erected 
of dried wood, on which the body is laid out at 
full length. Over the body a quantity of twigs 
are laid, which are sprinkled with punchaka- 
ryam. The chief of the funeral then takes on 
his shoulders a pitcher of water, and goes 
around the pile three times, letting the water 
run through a hole made in it. After this he 
breaks the pitcher in pieces near the head of 
the corpse. 

At last the torch is brousrht for settins: fire 
to the pile, and is handed to the chief of the 
funeral. Before he receives it, however, he is 
obliged to make some grimaces to prove his 
sorrow. He rolls about on the ground, beats 
his breast, and makes the air resound with his 
cries. The assistants also cry, or appear to 
cry. Fire being applied to the four corners of 
tlie pile, the crowd retire, except the four Brah- 
mins who carried the body ; they remain until 
the whole is consumed. 

The funerals of the Sudras differ in some 
particulars from those of the Brahmins. Deaf- 
ening sounds of drums, trumpets, and otlier 


instruments of music, not in use among the 
Brahmins, accompany their funerals. To in- 
crease the noise, they sometimes shoot off an 
instrument which somewhat resembles a small 
cannon. I do not now think of any other par- 
ticular worthy of mention. 

By the ceremonies which are performed just 
before death, this wretched people expect to 
secure the pardon of all the sins of the de- 
ceased. Alas, what a delusion ! 0, that Chris- 
tians had sent the Grospel to this dark land 
in the days when they sent it to our heathen 
fathers. Then might the Hindoos now be 
seeking the expiation of their sins, through the 
blood of the ever-blessed Redeemer. Of this 
Redeemer, however, they know nothing. They 
enter eternity, not that their souls may be con- 
sumed as their bodies have been, but to endure 
the flames of divine wrath for ever and ever. 
Alas, alas, that it should be so ! 0, that the 
generation of Christians now living would lay 
these things to heart, and do what they can, 
through grace, to rescue those who are yet 
within the reach of hope from so tremendous a 
doom. What, my dear children, will you do 
for this purpose ? 




My dear Children — The word heathen i.s 
applied to those who worship idols, or who do 
not know any thing about the true God. This 
i.s the case with this people. They say that 
there is one supreme being, whom they call 
Braiim ; but he is very different from Jehovah, 
and is never worshipped. Generally, he is fast 
asleep. In the place of Brahm, they worship 
]ijany gods — gods of all colors : some black, 
some white, some blue, some red — gods of all 
shapes and sizes : some in the shape of beasts, 
some in the shape of men ; some partly in the 
shape of beasts, and partly in the shape of men, 
having four, or ten, or a hundred, or a thousand 
eyes, heads, and hands. They ride through 
the air on elephants, buffaloes, lions, sheep, 
deer, goats, peacocks, vultures, geese, serpents, 
and rats. They hold in their hands all kinds 
of weapons, offensive and defensive, thunder- 
bolts, javelins, spears, clubs, bows, arrows, 
shields, flags, and shells. They am of all om- 


ployments. There are gods of the heavens 
above and of the earth below, gods of wisdom 
and of folly, gods of war and of peace, gods of 
good and of evil, gods of pleasure, gods of 
cruelty and wrath, whose thirst must be satia- 
ted with torrents of blood. These gods fight 
and quarrel with one another. They lie, steal, 
commit adultery, murder, and other crimes. 
They pour out their curses when they cannot 
succeed in their wicked plots, and invent all 
kinds of lying tales to hide their wickedness. 

There are three principal gods, who compose 
what is called the Hindoo triad. Their names 
are Brumha, Yrishnoo, and Siva. They were 
somehow drawn from Brahm's essence, on one 
occasion when he was awake. Brumha, they 
say, is the creator of the world, Yrishnoo the 
preserver, and Siva the destroyer. Brumha 
has no temple erected for his worship, on ac- 
count of a great falsehood which he told. I 
will tell you what it was. Once, as it is said, 
there was a dispute between him and Yrishnoo, 
as to who is the greatest. While thus disput- 
ing, Siva appeared between the two as a fire- 
post, and told them that he who would find the 
bottom or the top of the post first, wovild show 


that he is the greatest. Vrishnoo immediately 
changed himself into a hog, and began to root 
up the earth with the hope of finding the bottom 
of the post. Brumlia changed himself into a 
swan, flew up towards the top of the post, and 
cried out, I have found it, when he had not. 
This, you know, my dear children, was a false- 
hood. For this falsehood, it is said, no temple 
is erected for his worship. 

Yrishnoo was a thief and a liar. He was 
once dwelling in the house of a dairyman, and 
he used constantly to be stealing butter and 
curdled milk from the dairyman's wife. She 
did not know, for a long time, what became of 
her butter and curdled milk ; but at last she 
found out that Vrishnoo was the thief. To 
punish him for his theft, she tied him to a rice 

Siva's conduct was very bad. I will tell you 
but one thing about him. On one occasion he 
was playing at cards with his wife Parvathe. 
Vrishnoo was appointed to determine who was 
the best player. After playing for a little sea- 
son, Parvathe won the game. Siva then beck- 
oned to Vrishnoo to declare that he, instead of 
Parvathe, had won it. This ho did. Tn con- 


sequence of this falsehood, he was cursed by 
Parvathe, and changed into a snake. 

And now, my dear children, why do I tell 
you about these gods ? I tell you for the pur- 
pose of making you thankful that you were 
born in a Christian land, where you have the 
Bible to teach you better things. Had you not 
the Bible, you would worship just such wretch- 
ed beings as these poor Hindoos worship. Per- 
haps you know that our Saxon fathers, before 
they had the Bible, were as great idolaters as 
are this people. They worshipped Thor and 
"Woden and other similar idols, and they were 
even in the habit of offering up human sacri- 
fices. Surely, if there is any thing which 
should make you give your hearts to your Sav- 
iour, and love him above all things, it is God's 
gift of the Bible to you. 

Tin: UNIVERSE. 17 



My dear Children — I told you that in one 
of those seasons when Brahm was awake, 
Brumha, Vrishnoo, and Siva were somehow 
drawn from Brahm's essence. The three hun- 
dred and thirty millions of the gods of the 
Hindoos were also drawn from this essence ; 
as were all the atoms which compose the earth, 
the sun, moon, and stars. At first, these atoius 
were all in disorder. For the purpose of re- 
ducing them to order, Brahm created what is 
called the great mundane egg. Into this egg 
he himself entered, under the form of Brumha. 
taking with him all these atoms. After remain- 
ing in this egg four thousand three hundred 
millions o? years, to arrange these atoms, he 
burst its shell and came out, with a thousand 
heads, a thousand eyes, and a thousand arms. 
With him, he brought out all those harmo- 
nized atoms, which, when separated, produced 



this beautiful universe that we see ahove and 
around us. 

The universe, as it came from the mundane 
egg, is generally divided into fourteen worlds: 
seven inferior or lower worlds, and seven supe- 
rior or upper worlds. The seven lower worlds 
are filled with all kinds of wicked and loath- 
some creatures. Our earth, which is the first 
of the upper worlds, it is said, is flat. The 
following figure will give you some idea of it. 


Tliat part of the earth which is inhabited 
consists of seven circular islands, or conti- 
nents, each of which is surrounded by a dif- 
ferent ocean. The island in the centre, where 
we dwell, is surrounded by a sea of salt water, 
the second island is surrounded by a sea of 
sugar-cane juice, the third island is surround- 
ed by a sea of spirituous liquors, the fourth 
is surrounded by a sea of clarified butter, the 
fifth is surrounded by a sea of sour curds, 
the sixth is surrounded by a sea of milk, 
the seventh is surrounded by a sea of sweet 

In all the worlds above ours are mansions 
where the gods reside. In the third is the 
heaven of Indra. This is the heaven to which 
it is said the widow goes, after she has burned 
herself to death on the funeral pile of her hus- 
band. Its palaces are of the purest gold. And 
such are the quantities of diamonds, and jasper, 
and sapphire, and emerald, and all manner of 
precious stones there, that it shines with a 
brightness superior to that of twelve thousand 
suns. Its streets are of the clearest crystal, 
fringed with gold. In the seventh, or the high- 
est of the upper worlds, is the heaven where 

«cudder'« Tales. 4 


Brumha chiefly resides. This far exceeds all 
the other heavens in point of beauty. 

In the inferior worlds it is stated that there 
are one hundred thousand hells. These are 
provided for such as have been great criminals. 
The Hindoos say, that those who have not been 
very wicked, can make an atonement for their 
sins in this world. Should they neglect to do 
this, they must suffer for it in another birth. 
They believe in what is called the transmigra- 
tion of souls, or the passing of the soul, after 
death, into another body. The soul must suffer 
in the next birth, if not purified in this. Hence 
it is asserted, that if a man is a stealer of gold 
from a Brahmin, he is doomed to have whit- 
lows on his nails ; if a drinker of spirits, black 
teeth ; if a false detractor, fetid breath ; if a 
stealer of grain, the defect of some limb ; if a 
stealer of clothes, leprosy ; if a horse-stealer, 
lameness ; if a stealer of a lamp, total blindness. 
If he steals grain in the husk, he will be born 
a rat ; if yellow mixed metal, a gander ; if 
money, a great stinging gnat ; if fruit, an ape ; 
if the property of a priest, a crocodile. 

Those persons whose sins are too great to be 
forgiven in this world, must be sent to one of 


the hells to which I have alluded. Weeping, 
wailing, shrieking, they are dragged to the 
palace of Yama, the king of those doleful re- 
gions. On arriving there, they behold him 
clothed with terror, two hundred and forty miles 
in height, his eyes as large as a lake of water, 
his voice as loud as thunder, the hairs of his 
body as long as palm-trees, a flame of fire pro- 
ceeding from his mouth, the noise of his breath 
like the roaring of a tempest, and in his right 
liand a terrific iron club. Sentence is passed, 
and the wretched beings are doomed to receive 
punishment according to the nature of their 
crimes. Some are made to tread on burnins: 
sands, or sharp-edged stones. Others are roll(3d 
among thorns and spikes and putrefying flesh. 
Others are dragged along the roughest places 
by cords passed through the tender parts of the 
body. Some are attacked by jackals, tigers, 
and elephants. Others are pierced with arrows, 
beaten with clubs, pricked with needles, seared 
with hot irons, and tormented by flies and 
wasps. Some are plunged into pans of liquid 
fire or boiling oil. Others are dashed from 
lofty trees, many hundred miles high. 

The torment of these hells does not continue 


for ever. After criminals have been punished 
for a longer or shorter time, their souls return 
to the earth again in the bodies of men. Here 
they may perform such good acts as may 
raise them to one of the heavens of the gods ; 
or commit crimes, which may be the means 
of their being sent again to the abodes of 

Things will go on in this way until the 
universe comes to an end, when every thing 
is to disappear, and to be swallowed up in 

The Hindoos say, that it is now more than 
one hundred and fifty billions of years since the 
world was created. After it has continued 
about one hundred and fifty billions of years 
more, it is to come to an end. Then Brum ha 
is to die, and to be swallowed up with the uni- 
verse, in the sole existing Brahm. 

By what you have heard, you will learn that 
the Hindoos expect, by their sufferings, to make 
an atonement for their sins. But there is no 
atonement for sin, except through the blood of 
Jesus Christ. We must come as lost sinners 
to our heavenly Father, confess our transgres- 
sions to him, and plead for his forgiveness, only 


through the sufTerings and death which Christ 
endured. My dear children, have you done 
this ? If not, do it speedily, or tlio regions of 
the lost must soon be vour everlastins: abode 



My dear Children — The people of India are 
divided into castes, as they are called. Their 
sacred books declare, that after Brumha had 
peopled the heavens above and the worlds below, 
he created the human race, consisting of four 
classes or castes. From his mouth proceeded 
the Brahmin caste. Those of this class are the 
highest and noblest beings on earth, and hold 
the office of priests. At the same time there 
flowed from his mouth the Vedas, or sacred 
books, of which the Brahmins are the sole teach- 
ers. To their fellow-men, thev were to cfive 
such parts of these books as they thought best. 
From Brumha's arm proceeded the military 
caste. The business of this class is to defend 
their country when attacked by enemies. From 
his breast proceeded the third caste, consisting 


of farmers and merchants. From his feet, the 
member of inferiority, proceeded the Sudras, or 
servile caste. Carpenters, braziers, weavers, 
dyers, and the manual cultivators of the soil, 
tire included in this class. 

Caste is not a civil, but a sacred institution. 
You must get some one older than yourself to 
explain what this means. Caste is a difference 
of kind. Hence, a man of one caste can never- 
be changed into a man of another caste, any 
more than a Kqa can be changed into a mole, 
or a mole into a lion. Each caste has its laws, 
the breaking of which is attended with great 
disgrace, and even degradation below all the 
other castes. For instance, if a Brahmin should, 
by eating any forbidden thing, break his caste, 
he would sink below all the other castes. He 
would become an outcast, or pariah. For be- 
neath the fourth, or lowest caste, there is a 
class of people belonging to no caste — a class 
of outcasts, held in the utmost abhorrence. 

By the system of castes, the Hindoos have 
been divided into so many selfish sections, each 
scowling on all the rest with feelings of hatred 
and contempt. The spirit which upholds it, is 
similar to that spirit which says, " Stand by 


thyself, for I am holier than thon," and, of 
course, is nothing but pride. This is one of 
the greatest obstacles to the spread of Clu-isti- 
anity in this dark land, and for the exhibition 
of which we were lately obliged to cut oft' many 
of the members of our churches. 

The Brahmins, in consequence of their being 
of the highest caste, and of their having been 
taught from their infancy to regard all other 
classes of men with the utmost contempt, are 
very proud. They make great eftbrts to keep 
themselves pure, in their sense of the word, both 
without and within. They are exceedingly 
afraid of being defiled by persons of other castes. 
They have the utmost dread even of being 
touched by a pariah. For them to eat with 
any of these pariahs, or to go into their houses, 
or to drink water which they have drawn, or 
from vessels which they have handled, is attend- 
ed with the loss of their caste. A Brahmin who 
should enter their houses, or permit them to 
enter his, would be cut oft" from his caste, 
and could not be restored without many trouble- 
some ceremonies and great expense. The pa- 
riahs are considered to be so low, that if a Brah- 
min were to touch them, even with the end of 


a long pole, he would be looked upon as pollut- 
ed. In some districts they are obliged to make 
a long circuit, when they perceive Brahmins in 
the way, that their breath may not infect them, 
or their shadow fall upon them as they pass. 
In some places their very approach is sufficient 
to pollute a whole neighborhood. 

The Brahmins carry their ideas of purity 
very far. Should a Sudra happen to look upon 
the vessels in which they cook their food, they 
would be considered as defiled. They can 
never touch any kind of leather or skin, except 
the skin of the tiger and antelope. The most 
disagreeable of all American fashions, in their 
eyes, is that of boots and gloves. They rarely 
eat their food from plates ; and when they do 
so, it is only at home. They use the leaf of 
the plantain or other trees as a substitute. To 
offer them any thing to eat on a metal or earth- 
en plate which others have used, would be 
considered a great affront. For the same rea- 
son, they will neither use a spoon nor a fork 
when they eat; and they are astonished that 
any one, after having applied them to their 
mouths, and infected them with saliva, should 
repeat the act a second time. They have a 


great abhorrence of the toothpick, if used a 
.second time. "When they eat any thing dry, 
they throw it into their mouths, so that the 
fingers may not approach the lips. 

They do not drink as we do, by applying the 
cup to the lips. This would be considered a 
gross impropriety. They pour the water into 
theii mouths. The reason why they do these 
things is, because they consider the saliva to 
be the most filthy secretion that comes from the 
body. It is on this account that no one is ever 
permitted to spit within doors. 

The use of animal food they consider to be de- 
filing. Not only will they not eat animal food, 
but they will eat nothing that has the princi- 
ple of life in it. On this account, they cannot 
eat eggs of any kind. I was once breaking an 
egg in my medicine-room at Panditeripo, while 
a Brahmin was present. He told me that, under 
such circumstances, he could not remain with 
me any longer. In his view, I was committing 
a great sin. To kill an ox or a cow, is consid- 
ered by them as a crime which can never be 
atoned for, and to eat their flesh is a defilement 
which can never be washed away. To kill a 
(^ow is, by Hinrlnn law. punishnblo with death. 


The touch of most animals, particularly that 
of the dog, denies a Brahmin. Should a dog 
touch them, they would be obliged instantly to 
plunge into water, and wash their clothes, in 
order to get rid of such a stain. Notwithstand- 
ing this, the dog is one of the gods worshipped 
by the Hindoos. 

The Hindoos consider themselves to be un- 
clean if they have assisted at a funeral. When 
the ceremony is over, they immediately plunge 
into water for the sake of purification. E ven the 
news of the death of a relative, a hundred miles 
off, has the same effect. The person who hears 
such news is considered unclean until he has 
bathed. In unison with this feeling, a person 
is no sooner dead, than he is hastened away to 
be buried or burned ; for, until this is done, 
those in the house can neither eat nor drink, 
nor go on with their occupations. 

A Brahmin who is particular in his delicacy, 
must be careful what he treads upon. He is 
obliged to wash his body or bathe, if he happens 
to tread on a bone, or a broken pot, a bit of rag, 
or a leaf from which one has been eating. He 
must also be careful where he sits down. Some 
devotees always carry their seats with them, 


tliat is, a tiger or antelope's skin, which are 
always held pure. Some are contented with 
a mat. They may sit down on the ground 
without defilement, provided it has been newly 
rubbed over witli cow-dung. This last specitic 
is used daily to purify their houses from the 
defilement occasioned by comers and goers. 
When thus applied, diluted with water, it has 
unquestionably one good effect. It completely 
destroys the fleas and other insects, with which 
they are very much annoyed. 

There is one thing more which I wish to 
mention. It is, that all tlie high castes consid- 
er the use of intoxicating drinks to be defiling. 
I hope that you, my dear children, will always 
have the same opinion, and never touch them 
any sooner than you would touch arsenic or 
other poisons. 

A person may be restored to his caste, pro- 
vided he has not committed an unpardonable 
offence. This is done as follows. After he has 
trained the consent of his relations to be restor- 
ed, he prostrates himself very humbly before 
them, they being assembled for that purpose, 
and submits to the blows or other punishment 
which they may think proper to inflict, or pays 


the fine which they may have laid upon him. 
Then, after shedding tears of sorrow, and mak- 
ing promises that, by his future conduct, he 
will wipe away the stain of his expulsion from 
caste, he makes the shaastaangkum before the 
assembly. This being done, he is declared fit 
to be restored to his tribe. 

When a man has been expelled from his caste 
for some great offence, those who restore him 
sometimes slightly burn his tongue with a piece 
of gold made hot. They likewise apply to dif- 
ferent parts of the body red hot iron stamps, 
which leave marks that remain for ever. Some- 
times they compel the offender to walk on burn- 
ing embers ; and to complete the purification, 
he must drink the punchakaryam, which lit- 
erally means the five things ; these all come 
from the cow, and must be mixed together. 
The first three of these I will mention, namely, 
the milk, butter, and curds. The other two, 
for the sake of delicacy, I must not mention. 
After the ceremony of punchakaryam is finish- 
ed, the person wdio has been expelled from his 
caste must give a grand feast. This finishes 
all he has to do, and he is then restored to 


There are certain ofTenccs which, when com- 
mitted, cut off all hope that the offender will 
ever be restored to his caste. For instance, 
should he eat the flesh of the cow, no presents 
which he might make, nor any fines which he 
might be disposed to pay, no, not even the 
punchakaryam itself, would be of any avail for 
his restoration or purification. 

I will make a remark here, which I might 
have made before. It is, that in Christian coun- 
tries, there is a spirit of pride whicli much re- 
sembles the spirit of caste. Many are to bo 
found who are very proud that they have de- 
scended from rich and honorable ancestors^ and 
who look down, almost with disdain, upon those 
in other situations. I need hardly tell you that 
this is a very wicked spirit, and entirely opposed 
to the spirit of the Gospel. No matter what 
may be our high thoughts of ourselves, we ap- 
pear but very low in the sight of Him who cre- 
ated us. We are all sinners, and, as such, are 
offensive in his sisfht. If we would ofo to heav- 
en, the first thing which we have to do, is to 
humble ourselves for the pride of our hearts, 
and become as little children before him. We 
must have tliat spirit of which the apostle 


speaks, when he says, " Let each esteem others 
better than themselves." With a humble spirit 
we may approach a holy God, with the assur- 
ance that he will, for Christ's sake, forgive all 
our sins. 



My dear Children — I will proceed to give 
you a description of the Hindoo temples. These 
are very numerous. One is to be found in 
almost every village. They are to be found, 
also, in out-of-the-way places, distant from 
villages, in woods, on the banks and in the 
middle of rivers ; but, above all, on mountains 
and steep rocks. 

This latter practice, of building temples on 
mountains, is very ancient. The Israelites 
were accustomed to choose a mountain when 
they offered up their sacrifices to the Lord. 
Solomon, before the building of the temple, 
chose Mount Gibeon on which to offer his burnt- 
offerings ; and when the ten tribes separated 
themselves, in the reign of Jeroboam, they built 


their altars on the mountain of Samaria. This 
practice may have come from the circumstance, 
that Noah offered to God a great sacrifice of 
thanks on one of the highest mountains of Ar- 
menia. Probably j\Iount Ararat continued long 
to be remembered, by him and his descendants, 
as the scene of their deliverance. 

Besides the temples of the idols, there are 
various objects of worship, made of earth and 
stone. Some of the idols are carved. Some 
consist merely of the rough stone. These are 
to be seen on the high-roads, at the entrance 
into villages, and, above all, under lofty trees. 
Some of these are covered ; but generally they 
are exposed in the open air. 

You will read in Genesis, 28th chap, and 
18th verse, that Jacob, after his dream, rose up 
early in the morning and took the stone that he 
had put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, 
and poured oil upon the top of it. "Wliether it 
has happened from this circumstance or not, 
that the heathen universally pour oil over their 
idols, I cannot tell. All I know is, that they 
do it. No idol can become an object of wor- 
ship until a Brahmin has said his muntruras, or 
prayers, for the purpose of bringing down the 


god to live, as it is said he does, in the image, 
and until he has drenched it with oil and liquid 

The idols, in the great temples, are clothed 
with rich garments, and adorned with jewels, 
which are enriched with precious stones of im- 
mense value. Sacrifices are constantly made 
to these idols, consisting of boiled rice, flowers, 
fruits, etc., but, above all, of lamps, of wdiich 
many thousands are sometimes seen burning. 
They feed them with butter, in preference to oil. 

The priests of the temples offer up sacrifices 
twice every day, morning and evening. They 
begin the ceremony by washing their idol. 
The water which is used is brouo-ht from a 
river or tank. Every morning a procession, 
with music, passes before our door, with this 

Every priest who offers up sacrifices, must 
have several lighted lamps with a bell, which 
he holds in his left hand. With his right hand 
he makes an offering to the idol, adorns it with 
flowers, and rubs its forehead and various parts 
of its body with sandal- wood and holy aslies. 
While all this is going on, he is alone in the 
temple, the door of which is closed. The un- 


holy multitude remain without, silently wait- 
ing till he has done. What he does, they can- 
not know, only hearing tlie sound of the bell. 
When he has done, he comes out and distributes 
among tlie people a part of the things which 
have been oflered to the idol. These are con- 
sidered as holy. If they consist of rice and 
fruit, they are immediately eaten : if of flowers, 
the men put them in their turbans, and the girls 
entwine them in their hair. 

Next to the priests, the most important per- 
sons about the temples are the dancing girls. 
These are persons of the vilest character. They 
perform their religious duties in the temple 
twice a day. They also assist at the public 
ceremonies, and dance. At the same time 
they sing the most abominable and filthy songs. 
Of these wicked creatures, however, I must not 
tell you any thing further. 

The next order of persons employed in the 
temples, are players on musical instruments. 
Every temple of note has a band of these mu- 
sicians, who, as well as the dancers, are obliged 
to attend the temple twice a day. They are 
also obliged to assist at all the public festivals. 
Their band general! v consists of wind instru- 

Scudder'i Talet. 5 


ments, resembling clarionets and hautboys, to 
which they add cymbals and drums. They have 
a bass, produced by blowing into a kind of tube, 
widened below, and which gives an uninter- 
rupted sound. Part of the musicians sing 
liymns in honor of their gods. 

The expenses of the temples are borne by the 
voluntary offerings of the people, consisting of 
money, jewels, cattle, provisions, and other 
articles. In order to induce them to make 
such offerings, the Brahmins use all kinds of 
deception. Sometimes they will put their idols 
in irons, chaining their hands and feet. They 
exhibit them in this sad condition, declaring 
that they have been brought into it by cred- 
itors, from whom their gods had to borrow 
money, in times of trouble, to supply their 
w^ants. They declare that their creditors re- 
fuse to set the gods at liberty, until the money 
with the interest is paid. The people, seeing 
the deplorable condition into which they have 
been brought, come forward and pay off the 
debt ; when the chains are taken off, and the 
god is set at liberty. 

Another way in which the Brahmins some- 
times deceive the people, is as follows. They 


say that the god is afllicted. with some dreadful 
disease, brought on by the distress which lie 
has had, because the people do not worship him 
as much as they should. In such cases, the 
idol is sometimes placed at the door of the tem- 
ple, where they rub his forehead and temples 
with various kinds of medicine. They also set 
before him all sorts of medicines, pretending in 
this way to do all they can to cure him. But 
as all their efforts prove to be vain, and the 
disease becomes worse, the Brahmins send out 
persons to tell the sad news. The people, be- 
lieving the report, hasten to bring in their gifts 
and offerings. The god, on beholding such 
proofs of their attachment to him, feels himself 
cured of his disease, and immediately returns 
to his throne within the temple. 

The Brahmins use another kind of deception, 
in order to procure offerings for the temples. 
They declare that their gods are angry with 
certain individuals who have offended them, 
and that they have sent some evil spirit or 
devil to take possession of their bodies and tor- 
ment th em. Accordingly, persons appear wan- 
dering about in different parts of the country, 
sliowing, by their dreadful convulsions, their 


writhings and twistings, every symptom of 
being possessed with the devil. The people 
who see them are filled with dismay, fall down 
before them, and offer gifts and sacrifices, for 
fear of being injured by them. AYhatever they 
ask is granted. The people give them to eat 
and drink abundantly ; and when they leave a 
place, accompany them with instruments of 
music, till they arrive at some other place, 
where the same deception is practised. 

There are various other ways in which the 
Brahmins deceive the people ; but I have told 
you enough. 

At every large temple, there is at least yearly 
one grand procession. The idol is brought out 
from its inclosure, and placed in a great car or 
chariot, prepared for this express purpose. This 
stands upon four wheels of great strength, not 
made like ours, of spokes with a rim, but of 
three or four pieces of thick, solid timber, round- 
ed and fitted to each other. The car is some- 
times forty or fifty feet high, having upon it 
carved images of a most abominable nature. I 
must not tell you any thing about them. The 
car, when finished, presents somewhat the shape 
of a pyramid. 



•■■*'f,-^ ' 

On the day of the procession, it is adorned 
with painted cloth, garlands of flowers, green 
shrubbery, and precious stuffs. The idol is 
placed in the centre, loaded with jewels, etc., 
to attract the attention of the people. Having 
fastened ropes to this enormous car, eight or 
nine hundred or a thousand people catch hold 
of the ropes and slowly drag it along, accom- 
panied with the awful roaring of their voices. 
At certain periods they stop; when the im- 
mense crowds, collected from all parts of tlie 



country, set up one universal shout, or rather 
yell. This, with the sound of their instru- 
ments and numerous drums, produces much 
uproar and confusion. Sometimes the weighty 
car comes to a stand, from the dampness of the 
ground or from the narrowness of the streets, 
when the tumult and noise are redoubled. 

Perhaps you know that on some occasions, 
when the cars are drawn, people throw them- 
selves under the 
wheels, and are 
crushed to death. 
This occurs at the 
drawing of the car 
of Juggernaut, as 
you may learn if 
you will read my ^J 
Sermon to Chil- 
dren, on the Con- 
dition of the Hea- 
then. Here is a 
picture of Jugger- 
naut, and on the last page you may see a pic- 
ture of his car, and two men crushed to death 
under the wheels. IN'ot long since, five persons 
were thus crushed to death. Many dreadful 

!• R ( ) C E S S I « ) N S 


accidents also take place at the drawing of 
these cars. A few years ago several persons in 
this city had their limbs amputated, in conse- 
([iience of injuries received. 

When I was in America, I showed to many 
of the dear chil- 
dren an idol called 
Pulliar, which was 
formerly worship- 
ped by Raamu, 
one of our native 
li(3lpers, when he 
was a heathen. I 
gave a particular 
description of the 
manner in which 
he daily worship- 
; ped it, in the ser- 
mon above men- 
tioned. Here is a picture, which will give 
you some idea of this god. 

You will see that it is partly in the shape of 
a man, and partly in the shape of a beast. You, 
my dear children, would put no confidence in 
such vain idols ; but this people do, as you may 
know from what I am now going to tell you. 


Some months ago, a woman was brought to 
me with a cancer in her breast. It had made 
sad ravages. On the morning after her arrival 
I took it out. Before she was brought to me, 
her brother went to the temple of the goddess 
Meenaache, to ascertain what was her will 
respecting his bringing her to me, or taking 
her to a native doctor. In order to ascertain 
it, he had recourse to the following expedient. 
He prepared several bundles of red and white 
flowers — the red to represent the red or Tamil 
man, the white to represent the white man. 
These flowers were carefully inclosed in leaves, 
so as to prevent their color being seen, and 
then laid down on the ground, at the entrance 
of the temple. After this, he called a little 
child to him, and then proceeded to entreat 
Meenaache that, if it were her will that he 
should bring the sick woman to me, she would 
direct the child to take up one of the parcels 
containing the white flowers. It so happened 
that the child took up one of these parcels. Of 
course, he brought her to me. Had it taken 
up a parcel containing the red flowers, she 
would have been taken to a native doctor. 
May we not hope that, not Meenaache, but 


Jehovah directed him to bring her to me, that 
she might hear of a very difterent being from 
her goddess, even of Jesus. Of him she has 
fiillv heard. 



]\[y dear Children — The Hindoos have many 
festivals. These are all occasions of joy and 
gladness. On such days, the people quit their 
usual employments. Friends and relations 
unite in family parties, and give entertain- 
ments according to their means. Innocent 
pastimes and amusements of various kinds are 
resorted too to add to their happiness. 

There are eighteen principal festivals yearly, 
and no month passes without one or more of 

One of the most solemn of these ceremonies 
is held in the month of September, and appears 
to be principally in honor of Parvathe, the wife 
of Siva. At this time every laborer and every 
artisan offers sacrifices and prayers to his tools. 


The laborer brings his plough, hoe, and other 
farming utensils. He piles them together, and 
offers a sacrifice to them, consisting of flowers, 
fruit, rice, and other articles. After this, he 
prostrates himself before them at full length, 
and then returns them to their places. 

The mason offers the same adoration and 
sacrifice to his trowel, rule, and other instru- 
ments. The carpenter adores his hatchet, adze, 
and plane. The barber collects his razors to- 
gether, and worships them with similar rites 

The writing-master sacrifices to the iron pen 
or style, with which he writes upon the palm- 
leaf, the tailor to his needles, the weaver to his 
loom, the butcher to his cleaver. 

The women, on this day, collect into a heap 
their baskets, rice-mill, rice-pounder, and other 
household utensils, and, after having offered 
sacrifices to them, fall down in adoration before 
them. Every person, in short, in this solem- 
nity, sanctifies and adores the instrument or 
tool by which he gains a living. The tools are 
considered as so many gods, to whom they pre- 
sent their prayers that they v/ill continue to 
furnish them still with the means of getting a 


This feast is concluded by making an idol to 
represent Parvathe. It is made of the paste ol 
grain, and being placed under a sort of canopy, 
is carried through the streets with great pomp, 
and receives the worship of the people. 

Another festival of great celebrity is observ- 
ed in October. At this time, each person, for 
himself, makes offerings of boiled rice and 
other food, to such of their relations as have 
died, that they may have a good meal on that 
day. They afterwards offer sacrifices of burn- 
ing lamps, of fruit, and of flowers, and also 
new articles of dress, that their ancestors may 
be freshly clothed. 

At this festival, soldiers offer sacrifices to 
their weapons, in order to obtain success in war. 
On such occasions, a ram is offered in sacrifice 
to their armor. 

In November, a festival is observed, which is 
called the feast of lamps. At this season, the 
Hindoos light lamps, and place them around 
the doors of their houses. This festival was 
established to commemorate the deliverance of 
the earth from a giant, who had been a great 
scourge to the people. He was slain by Yrish- 
noo, after a dreadful battle. In many places. 


on this day, a sacrifice is offered to the dung- 
hill, which is afterwards to enrich the ground. 
In the villages, each one has his own heap, to 
which he makes his offering of burning lamps, 
fruit, flowers, etc. 

The most celebrated of all the festivals, is 
that which is held in the end of December. It 
is called the feast of Pongul,. and is a season of 
rejoicing for two reasons : the first is, because 
the month of December, every day of which is 
unlucky, is about to end ; and the other is, be- 
cause it is to be followed by a month, every 
day of which is fortunate. For the purpose of 
preventing the evil effects of this month, the 
women every morning scour a place about two 
feet square before the door of the house, upon 
which they draw white lines, with flour. Upon 
these they place several little balls of cow-dung, 
sticking in each a flower. Each day these 
little balls, with their flowers, are preserved, 
and on the last day of the month, they are 
thrown into tanks or waste-places. 

The first day of this festival is called the 
Pongul of rejoicing. Near relatives are invited 
to a feast, which passes off with mirth and 


The second day is called the Ponsrul of the 
sun, and is set apart to worship that luminary. 
Married women, after bathing themselves, pro- 
ceed to boil rice with milk, in the open air. 
AVhen the milk begins to simmer, they make a 
loud cry, "Pongul, Pongul." The vessel is 
then taken from the fire, and set before an idol. 
Part of this rice is offered to the image, and, 
after standing there for some time, it is given 
to the cows. The remainder is given to the 
jieople. This is the great day for visiting 
among friends. The salutation begins by the 
question, "Has the milk boiled?" To which 
the answer is, " It has boiled." From this, the 
festival takes the name of pongul, which sig- 
nifies to boil. 

The third day is called the Pongul of coios. 
In a great vessel, filled with water, they put 
safli'on and other things. These being well 
mixed, they go around the cows and oxen be- 
longing to the house several times, sprinkling 
them with water. After this, the men pros- 
trate themselves before them four times. The 
cows are then dressed, their horns being paint- 
ed with various colors. Garlands of flowers 
are also put round their necks, and over their 


backs. To these are added strings of cocoa 
nuts and other kinds of fruit, which, however, 
are soon shaken off, when they are in motion, 
and are picked up by children and others, who 
greedily eat what they gather, as something 
sacred. After being driven through the streets, 
they are suffered, during the day, to feed wher- 
ever they- please, without a keeper. I have, 
however, told you enough. Are you ready to 
exclaim. Is it possible that a people can be 
guilty of such utter folly ? But you, my dear 
children, would be guilty of just such folly, if 
you had not the Bible. Should not the grati- 
tude, then, which you owe to your heavenly 
Father, for your distinguished mercies, con- 
strain you to do all that you can to send this 
blessed book to this dark land? 

vvoRsmr of the serpent 79 



]\[y dear Childrkx — If you have never heard 
much about tlie Hiiidoo.s, you will be astonish- 
ed to learn how numerous are the objects of 
their worship. They worship many living 
creatures, such as the ape, the tiger, the ele- 
phant, the horse, the ox, the stag, the sheep, 
the hog, the dog, the cat, the rat, the peacock, 
the eagle, the cock, the hawk, the serpent, the 
chameleon, the lizard, the tortoise, fishes, and 
even insects. Of these, some receive much 
more worship than others, such as the cow, the 
ox, and the serpent Cobra Capella. I will 
speak at present only of the worship of the 

Of all the dangerous creatures found in India, 
there are none that occasion so many deaths as 
serpents. The people are very much exposed 
to their bite, especially at night, when they are 
walking. They tread upon them, and, as they 
generally do not wear shoes, the snakes turn 
their heads, and strike their fangs into those 
parts of the feet which are nearest to the place 


where the pressure is made upon their bodies. 
Sometimes the bite is followed with instant 
death. The Cobra Capella is one of the most 
common snakes, and one of the most poisonous. 
It is said, that it has a thousand heads, one of 
which holds up the earth. It has a peculiar 
mark on its back, just behind the head. This 
mark very much resembles a pair of spectacles, 
without the handles. If you should go near 
it, it would raise the fore part of its body about 
six inches, widen out its neck, so as to be about 
double its common width, and prepare to strike 
you. The reason why the Hindoos offer sacri- 
fices and adoration to it above all the other 
serpents is, because it is so frequently met with, 
and is so much dreaded. 

In order to induce the people to worship this 
dangerous enemy, the Hindoos have filled their 
books with tales concernins^ it. Fisfures of it 


are often to be seen in the temples, and on 
other buildings. They seek out their holes, 
which are generally to be found in the hillocks 
of earth which are thrown up by the white 
ants ; and when they find one, they go from 
time to time and offer milk, plantains, and 
other good things to it. 




The Hindoos, as 1 before observed, have 
eighteen annual festivals. One of these festi- 
vals is held for the purpose of worshipping this 
serpent. Temples in many places are erected 
to it, of wliich there is one of great celebrity in 
Mysore. When the festival occurs at this tem- 
ple, great crowds of people come together to 
offer sacrifices to this creeping god. Many 
serpents besides the Cobra Capella live within 
it, in holes made especially for them. All of 
these are kept and well fed by the Brahmins 

ScuJJer's Tales. 


with milk, butter, and plantains. By such 
means they become very numerous, and may 
be seen swarming from every crevice in the 
temple. To injure or to kill one would be con- 
sidered a great crime. 

Many of the natives call the Cobra Capella 
nulla paampu, that is, good snake. They are 
afraid to call it a bad snake, lest it should injure 
them. The following is the prayer. which is 
offered before the image of this snake. 0, di- 
vine Cobra, preserve and sustain us. 0, Sheoh, 
partake of these offerings, and be gracious 
unto us. 

Can you think of any thing, my dear chil- 
dren, more dishonoring to a holy God, than 
such worship ? And what have you ever done 
to prevent it ? Have you, every morning and 
evening, prayed that the Grospel might be sent 
to this people ? Did you ever give any money 
to send it to them ? Did you ever think whether 
it may not be your duty, by and by, to come 
to them, to tell them of this Gospel ? 

Tur: RIVER (;aN(;es. 83 



My dear Ciiildrhn — If you will look at the 
map of Asia, and find the country of Hindostan, 
you will see running through it a very cele- 
brated river — the river Ganc^es. It is called 
the Ganges, after the goddess Gunga. The 
Hindoos say that the goddess Gunga — who was 
produced from the sweat of Vrishnoo's foot, 
which Bruinha caught and preserved in his 
alms-dish — came down from heaven, and divided 
herself into one hundred streams, which are 
the mouths of the river Ganges. All classes 
and castes worship her. The sight, the name, 
or the touch of the river Gansres is said to take 
away all sin. To die on the edge of the river, 
or to die partly buried in the stream, drinking 
its waters, while their bodies are besmeared 
with mud, is supposed to render them very 
holy. On this account, when it is expected 
that a person will die, he is hurried down to 
the river, whether willing or unwilling. Some- 
times the wood which the people bring to burn 
their bodies after death, is piled up before their 


eyes. 0, how inhuman is this. After it is 
supposed that they are dead, and they are placed 
on the pile of wood, if they should revive and 
attempt to rise, it is thought that they are 
possessed with the devil, and they are beaten 
down with a hatchet or bamboo. 

Were you standing on the banks of the Gan- 
ges, you might, perhaps, in one place see two 
or three young men carrying a sick female to 
the river. If you should ask what they are 
going to do with her, perhaps they would reply, 
We are going to give her up to Grunga, to purify 
her soul, that she may go to heaven; for she is 
our mother. In another place you might see 
a father and mother sprinkling a beloved child 
with muddy water, endeavoring to soothe his 
dying agonies by saying, "It is blessed to die 
by Gunga, my son ; to die by Gunga is blessed, 
my son." In another place you might see a 
man descending from a boat with empty water- 
pans tied around his nock, which pans, when 
filled, will drag down the poor creature to the 
bottom, to be seen no more. Here is murder 
in the name of religion. He is a devotee, and 
has purchased heaven, as he supposes, by this 
his last good deed. In another place you might 


see a person seated in the water, accompanied 
by a priest, who pours down the throat of the 
dying man mud and water, and cries out, " 
mother Gunga, receive his soul." The dying 
man may be roused to sensibility by the vio- 
lence. He may entreat his priest to desist ; 
but his entreaties are drowned. He persists in 
pouring the mud and water down his throat, 
until he is gradually stifled, suffocated — suflb- 
cated in the name of humanitv — sufl^ocated in 
the name of religion. 

It happens, sometimes, in cases of sudden 
and violent attacks of disease, that they cannot 
be conveyed to the river before death. Under 
such circumstances, a bone is preserved, and at 
a convenient season is taken down and thrown 
into the river. This, it is believed, contributes 
essentially to the salvation of the deceased. 

Sometimes strans^ers are left on the banks to 
die, without the ceremony of drinking Ganges 
water. Of these, some have been seen creeping 
along with the flesh half eaten off their bones 
by the birds ; others with their limbs torn by 
dogs and jackals, and others partly covered with 

After a person is taken down to the river, if 


he should recover, it is looked upon by his 
friends as a great misfortune. He becomes an 
outcast. Even his own children will not eat 
with him, nor offer him the least attention. If 
they should happen to touch him, they must 
wash their bodies, to cleanse them from the 
pollution which has been contracted. About 
fifty miles north of Calcutta, are two villages 
inhabited entirely by these poor creatures, who 
have become outcasts in consequence of their 
recovery after having been taken down to the 

At the mouth of the river Hoogly, which is 
one of the branches of the Granges, is the island 
Sanger, which I saw as we approached Cal- 
cutta, after having been at sea for one hundred 
and twenty-eight days. Now, my dear chil- 
dren, if you come out to India as missionaries, 
you will have to sail nearly one hundred and 
thirty days before you can reach it. Sanger 
island is the island where, formerly, hundreds 
of mothers were in the habit of throwins: their 
children to the crocodiles, and where these 
mothers were wont to weep and cry if the 
crocodiles did not devour their children before 
their eyes. Think what a dreadful religion 



that must be, which makes mothers so hard- 
hearted. Did you ever take any corn or Indian 
meal and throw it to the chickens ? And what 
did tliese chickens do ? Did they not come 
around you and eat it ? Well, just in this way 
the crocodiles would come near those mothers, 
and devour their children. Here is a picture of 
a mother throwing her child to a crocodile. 



J. am glad to tell you, that the British have 
put a stop to the sacrifice of children at that 
place ; but mothers continue to destroy their 
cliildren elsewhere, and will contipue to destroy 


them until Christians send the Gospel to them. 
It is not improbable that vast numbers of chil- 
dren are annually destroyed in the Ganges. 
Mothers sacrifice them, in consequence of vows 
which they have made. When the time to 
sacrifice them has come, they take them down 
to the river, and encourage them to go out so 
far that they are taken away by the stream, or 
they push them off with their own hands. 

I just remarked, that mothers will continue 
to destroy their children until the Gospel is 
sent to them. That the Gospel does prevent 
such things, the following circumstance will 
show. Several years ago, a missionary lady 
went from New England to India. As she was 
walkinsr out one mornino^, on the banks of the 
Ganges, she saw a heathen mother weeping. 
She went up to her, sat down by her side, put 
her hand into hers, and asked what was the 
matter with her. " I have just been making 
a basket of flags," said she, " and putting my 
infant in it — pushing it off into the river, and 
drowning it. And my gods are very much 
pleased with me, because I have done it." 
After this missionary lady had heard all she 
had to say, she told her that her gods were no 


gods ; that the only true God delights not in 
such sacrifices, but turns in horror from them ; 
and that, if she would be happy here and here- 
after, she must forsake her sins, and pray to 
Jesus Christ, who died to save sinners like her- 
self. This conversation was the means of the 
conversion of that mother, and she never again 
destroyed any of her infants. 

Such is the power of the blessed Gospel. 
And what the Gospel has done once, it can do 
again. If Christians will send it to them, with 
the blessing of God, the time will soon come 
when heathen mothers will no more destroy 
their children. And have you nothing to do in 
this great work, my dear children ? When you 
grow up, cannot you go and tell them of the 
Saviour ? Here is a very pretty hymn about 
a heathen mother throwini? her child to a 

See that heathen mother stand 
Where the sacred currents flow, 
With her own maternal hand, 
'Mid the waves her infant throw. 

Hark, I hear the piteous scream — 
Frightful monsters seize their prey, 
Or the dark and bloody stream 
Bears the struggling child away. 


Fainter now^ and fainter still. 
Breaks the cry upon the ear; 
But the mother's heart is steel, 
She unmoved that cry can hear 

Send, send the Bible there, 
Let its precepts reach the heart ; 
She may then her children spare. 
Act the mother's tender part. 

I have heard of a little boy who learned this 
hymn. He was deeply affected by it, and 
wanted very much to give something to send 
the Grospel to India. But he had no money. 
He was, however, willing to labor in order to 
earn some. Hearing that a gentleman wanted 
the chips removed from the ground near his 
woodpile, he hired himself to him, removed the 
chips, got his money, and, with glistening eyes, 
went and delivered it up, to be sent to the hea- 
then, repeating, as he went. 

Send; send the Bible there, 
Let its precepts reach the heart , 
She may then her children spare, 
Act the mother's tender part. 

About one hundred miles above the mouth 
of the Hoogly is the city of Calcutta, and about 
five hundred miles above that city is the city 
of Benares. In these cities, as well as in other 


places, we see how much the heathen will con- 
tribute to support their wretched religion. A 
rich native in Calcutta has been known to spend 
more than one hundred thousand dollars on 
a single festival— the festival of the goddess 
Karle — and more than thirty thousand dollars 
every year afterwards during his life, for the 
same purpose. Not long since, a rich native 
gave at one time to his idols more than one 
million two hundred thousand dollars. And 
what have Christians ever done to honor their 
Saviour, which will bear a comparison with 
what the heathen do for their idols? Alas, 
alas, few Christian men or Christian women, 
in all the church, are willing to give even one- 
tenth of their annual income to the Lord. Most 
of those who are rich, hoard up their money, 
instead of spending it for the purpose of saving 
souls. And there are many persons who have 
never given a farthing to send the Gospel to 
the heathen. 0, what will such say, when 
they must meet the heathen at the bar of God? 



My DEAR Children — From what I said, in 
my last chapter, about the goddess Gunga, you 
see that the Hindoos worship goddesses as well 
as gods. There is another goddess much wor- 
shipped, the wife of the god Siva. She has 
appeared in a thousand forms, with a thousand 
diderent names. Of all these thousand forms, 
Durga and Karle are the most regarded by the 
people. I will speak of Durga first. Of all the 
festivals in Eastern India, hers is the most cel- 
ebrated. She has ten hands, in which she holds 
an iron club, a trident, a battle-axe, spears, 
thunderbolts, etc. Thus armed, she is ever 
ready to fight with her enemies. 

Were you to be present in the city of Cal- 
cutta in the month of September, you might 
everywhere see the people busy in preparing 
for the yearly festival of this goddess. Images 
representing her you would find in great num- 
bers for sale, as bread or meat is sold. In the 
houses of the rich, images are to be found made 
of gold, silver, brass, copper, crystal, stone, or 


mixed metal, which arc daily worshipped. 
These are called permanent images. Besides 
these, multitudes of what are called temporary 
images are made — made merely for the occa- 
sion, and then destroyed. They may be made 
of hay, sticks, clay, wood, or other such things. 
Their size varies from a few inches to twenty 
feet in height. If any persons are too poor to 
buy one of these images, they can make them 
for "themselves. When the festival is near at 
hand, people are seen in every direction taking 
the images to their houses. After they are 
thus supplied, the festival commences. It lasts 
fifteen days. The greater part of this time is 
spent in preparing for the three great days of 
worship. Early on the morning of the first of 
the three great days, the Brahmins proceed to 
consecrate the images, or to give them, as they 
suppose, life and understanding. Until they 
are consecrated, they are not thought to be of 
any value. They are loolvcd upon as senseless. 
A. wealthy family can always receive the ser- 
vices of one or more Brahmins, and a few of 
the poor may unite and secure the services of 
one of them. At length the solemn hour ar- 
rives. The Brahmin, with the leaves of a sacred 


tree, comes near the image. With the two fore- 
fingers of his right hand he touches the breast, 
the two cheeks, the eyes, and the forehead of 
the image, at each touch saying the prayer, 
"Let the spirit of Durga descend and take pos- 
session of this image." By such ceremonies, 
and by repeating various munfrums, it is sup- 
posed that the Brahmins have the power to 
bring down the goddess to take possession of 
the image. Having been thus consecrated, it 
is believed to be a proper object of worship. 
Having eyes, it can now behold every act of 
worship which is made ; having ears, it can be 
delighted with music and with songs ; having 
a nose, it can smell the sweet perfumes which 
are offered ; having a mouth, it can be delight- 
ed with the rich food which is prepared for it. 
After the image is consecrated, the worship 
begins. The devotee comes near the image, 
and falls down before it. He then twists him- 
self into a great variety of shapes. Sometimes 
he sits on the floor, sometimes he stands, some- 
times he looks in one direction, sometimes in 
another. Then he sprinkles the idol with holy 
water, rinses its mouth, washes its feet, wipes 
it with a dry cloth, throws flowers over it, puts 


jewels on it, offers perfumes to it, and finishes 
by performing sliaashtaangkum. 

The worship of the idol is succeeded by a 
season of carousing, joy, and festivity. On this 
occasion, large offerings are made to the idols. 
A rich native has been known to offer eighty 
thousand pounds of sweetmeats, eighty thou- 
sand pounds of sugar, a thousand suits of cloth 
garments, a thousand suits of silk, a thousand 
offerings of rice, plantains, and other fruits. 

Bloody sacrifices are offered up on such oc- 
casions. The king of Nudiya, some time ago, 
offered a large number of sheep, goats, and 
buffaloes on the first day of the feast, and vowed 
to double the offering every day ; so that the 
whole number sacrificed amounted to more 
than sixty-five thousand. You may remember 
that king Solomon offered up on one occasion 
twenty-two thousand oxen, and a hundred and 
twenty thousand sheep. If all the animals 
slain throughout Hindostan, at the festival of 
the goddess Durga, were collected together, 
they would amount to a much larger number 
than Solomon offered. 

After the worship and offerings have been 
continued for three days, the festival closes. 


As the morning of the first day was devoted 
to the consecration of the images, the morning 
of the fourth is spent in unconsecrating them. 
This work is done by the Brahmins. They 
profess, by various ceremonies, to send back the 
goddess to her heaven, concluding with a fare- 
well address, in which they tell her that they 
expect her to accept of all their services, and 
return and pay them a visit again in the coming 
year. Then all unite in bidding her a sorrow- 
ful adieu, and many seem affected even to the 
shedding of tears. 

Soon afterwards the images are carried forth 
into the streets, placed on stages or platforms, 
and raised on men's shoulders. As the proces- 
sion moves onward through the streets, accom- 
panied with music and songs, amid clouds of 
dust, you might see them waving long hairy 
brushes to wipe ofT the dust, and to keep off 
the flies and mosquitoes, which might trouble 
the senseless images. But where are these 
processions going ? To the banks of the Gan- 
ges. And for what purpose ? For the purpose 
of casting the images into the river. "When all 
the ceremonies connected with the occasion are 
finished, those who carry the images suddenly 


fall upon them, break them to pieces, and then 
throw them with violence into the river. After 
this the people return to their homes. 

I have now given you a specimen of the image- 
worship of the Hindoos ; and how different is 
it from the worship which the Bible enjoins. 
"God is a Spirit; and they who worship him, 
must worship him in spirit and in truth." The 
very reverse of this, as you have seen, marks 
the worship of the heathen. They are not sat- 
isfied, unless they can have some object before 
them, to which they can make their offerings 
and their prayers. Thus daily are they engaged 
in a service which, above all others, is the most 
offensive and provoking to a holy God — a ser- 
vice which has caused him to declare, that idol- 
aters shall not enter the kingdom of heaven. 
This, too, is the service in which every person, 
who has never given himself to the Saviour, is 
engaged ; and, of course, in which you are en- 
gaged, if you have not given your hearts to him. 
Those who think more of their money than they 
think of Christ, just as certainly worship the 
image which is stamped on a dollar or a cent, 
as the heathen worship their idols. Those who 
love their fathers and mothers, and brothers 

ScuJdcr^ Tale*- 7 


and sisters more than Christ, make these their 
idols. And are you, my dear children, yet out 
of Christ ? If so, you have your idols. And 
what are these idols ? Are they the world and 
its vanities ? Then God is as angry with you 
as he is with the heathen, and unless you give 
up these idols, you too must be lost. 

In a tract of mine, published by the Amer- 
ican Tract Society, entitled, "Knocking at the 
Door" — a tract which I most earnestly entreat 
you to get and read — you will find an account 
of the death of a young lady, who had chosen 
the world and its vanities as her idols. I was 
her physician. After having attended her fur 
about a month, I perceived, one morning, that 
her disease must soon prove fatal. I told her 
that she could not live. She then exclaimed, 
" Doctor, can I not live a month ?" I informed 
her that she could not. Again she exclaimed, 
"Can I not live two weeks?" She was told 
that she could not live two weeks. And such 
a scene of horror followed as I never before 
witnessed, and may God be pleased to grant 
that I may never witness such another. Until 
laid upon a dying bed, I fear that she had neg- 
lected to think about her soul's concerns. Now 


she requested to be taken from it, and placed 
upon her knees, that she might call upon God 
to have mercy upon her. As her case excited 
much attention, some of the youth came to see 
lior. These she warned, in the most solemn 
manner, not to put off repentance, as she had 
done, to a dying hour. Looking up at me, on 
one occasion, she exclaimed, " Doctor, cannot 
you save me ?" Alas, wliat could I do for the 
poor sufferer. AVitness, now, how anxious she 
was to obtain the favor of that God whom she 
had hitherto neglected. Yes, so anxious that 
she requested her friends not to allow her to 
sleep, that she might spend every remaining 
breath in calling upon God to have mercy upon 
her. One very affecting circumstance occur- 
red. She requested her trunk either to be 
brought to her bedside, or to be opened. From 
this a ring, which was set with red garnets, 
was taken out by herself, or by another, and 
handed to her. She then called a young friend 
to her bedside, put the ring upon her "finger, and 
said to her, " Don't you put off repentance, as 
1 have done, until a dying hour." That ring 
is now in my possession. In less than forty- 
eight hours after I told her that she could not 


live, she passed into eternity. Would that I 
could show you that mournful countenance, 
which continued long after the last spark of life 
nad become extinct ; yes, even up to the mo- 
ment when the lid of her coffin tor ever hid it 
from our view. Never, never shall I forget it. 
It was a sad monument of the wreck within. 

Now, my dear children, you would not like 
to die as, I fear, this young lady died. Well, 
then, if you would die differently, you must 
live differently. You must live for Christ, if 
you would die in Christ. And are you Christ's, 
or are you yet gay and thoughtless — as gay and 
as thoughtless as this young lady was, until 
laid upon her dying bed ? If you are so, and if 
you continue to remain in this sad condition, 
your season of sorrow too will certainly come, 
and it will come when you expect it not. As 
the little insect which flies round and round 
your candle is dazzled with its brightness, and 
feels nothing but pleasure, until it uncon- 
sciously strikes the blaze with its little wings, 
and is swallowed up in the flame ; so you are 
dazzled with the pleasures of the w^orld, think- 
ing nothing of the flames which may swallow 
you up in a moment, and put a stop to all your 

Tin: (JOUDES.S DURCiA. 101 

joys for ever. 0, that the death-bed scene of 
]\Iiss ]\ratthe\vs iniglit have a happy effect upon 
you. 0, that the solemn warning which slie 
gave to lier young friend, not to put ofT repent- 
ance, as she had done, until a dying hour, might 
continue to sound in your ears, until you would 
no longer delay repentance. My dear children, 
this young lady, though dead, yet speaketh. 
She speaks to you. She calls upon you from 
her tomb — from the eternal world, to delay re- 
pentance no longer. Will you, then, be so mad 
as to turn a deaf ear to this call ? Will you 
ever take another sip from the cup of unhal- 
lowed pleasure? AVill you ever direct your 
little feet to the ballroom, or other places of 
sinful amusement ? Will you hereafter prefer 
your worldly joys to Christ ? 0, you must not, 
you must not. It will not do for you to be lost. 
AVho, who can lie down in everlasting burn- 
ings? Who can dwell for ever with devouring 




My DEAR Children — In the preceding chap- 
ter I spoke of Karle. She, as I there mention- 
ed, is the wife of Siva, and, like her husband, 
has the power of destruction. From the images 
made of her, it would appear that she is a fe- 
male, of a black or dark bkie color. She has 
four arms. In one hand she holds a sword, and 
in another a human head. Her hair is dishev- 
elled, reaching down to her feet. Her counte- 
nance is most ferocious. Her tongue comes 
out of her mouth, and hangs over her chin. 
She has three eyes, red and fiery. Her lips 
and eyebrows are streaked with blood. She has 
two dead bodies for ear-rings, and wears a 
girdle around her loins — a girdle made of bloody 
hands, which she CLit off from the bodies of her 
enemies. She has a necklace of skulls, which 
she took from the bodies of the giants and others 
killed by her. 

Of all the Hindoo divinities, this goddess is 
the most cruel and revens^eful. Such is her 
thirst for blood, that being unable at one time 




to procure any giants for hor prey, in order to 
quench her thirst, she cut her own throat, that 
the blood issuing thence might spout into her 
mouth. Different acts of worship are perform- 
ed to appease her. If, for example, a devotee 
should burn his body, by applying a burning 
lamp to it, it would be very pleasing to her. If 
he should draw some of his blood and give it 
to her, or if he should cut off a piece of his ilesh 
and offer it as a burnt-ollering, she would be 
still more pleased. If he should present whole 


biirnt-oiferings upon the altar, saying, "Hrang, 
hrang, Karle, Karle I 0, horrid-toothed god- 
dess, eat, eat ; destroy all the malignant : cut 
with this axe ; bind, bind ; seize, seize ; drink 
this blood ; spheng, spheng ; secure, secure ; 
salutation to Karle," she would be much de- 
lighted. It is said that she will be pleased for 
three months, if the people offer her the blood 
of a crocodile — for a thousand years, if they 
offer her the blood of one man, and a hundred 
thousand years, if they offer her the blood of 

This goddess is the patroness of thieves. To 
her they pay their devotions, to obtain help to 
carry on their wicked designs. Gangs meet 
together, and, after having offered bloody sac- 
rifices, and worshipped their weapons, and hav- 
ing drunk some intoxicating liquor, and rubbed 
their bodies with oil, they go forth to rob. 
They have a prayer, which they offer when 
they worship their weapons. It is as follows : 
" 0, instrument formed by the goddess, Karle 
commands thee to cut a passage into the house, 
to cut through stones, bones, bricks, wood, the 
earth, and mountains, and cause the dust there- 
of to be carried away by the wind." Scattered 


thronghoiit India, there is a lawless set of men 
whose profession it is to get their food by mur- 
der. Tliey are called Phansiagars, or Thugs. 
They owe their origin and laws to Karle. They 
say that she told them to become murderers 
and plunderers. They are called Phansiagars, 
from the name of the instrument which they 
use when they murder people. Phansiagar 
means a strangler, and they use a phansi, or 
noose, which they throw over the necks of those 
whom they intend to plunder, and strangle 
them. These Phansiagars are composed of all 
castes, Hindoos, Mahommedans, pariahs, and 
chandellars. This arises from the circumstance 
that they never destroy the children of those 
whom they rob and murder. These children 
they take care of, and bring up to their own 
horrible mode of life. They always murder 
those whom they rob, acting upon the maxim 
that " dead men tell no tales." A srans: of 
these robbers varies from a dozen to sixty or 
seventy persons. These divide into small par- 
ties. Those whom they murder are travellers, 
whom they happen to meet on the road. Some- 
times two or three of a gang will take up tlieir 
station in a choultry, or place where the trav- 


eller stops, and while he sleeps, they rouse him 
from his sleep, and cast the noose over his 
head and kill him. It takes two persons to kill 
a man. One casts the noose over his head, and 
immediately tightens it with all his strength ; 
the other strikes him on the joint of his knees 
as he rises, which causes him to fall forwards. 
After he has fallen, they kick him on the tem- 
ples till he dies, which is usually in a minute. 
They never commit a murder until they have 
taken every precaution not to be found out. 
They will follow a traveller for weeks, if neces- 
sary, before they destroy him. After they have 
murdered him, they gash the body all over and 
bury it. They gash it, that it may not swell, 
and cause cracks to take place in the ground^ 
which might cause the jackals to dig down to 
the body, and thus expose their guilt. If a dog 
accompanies the person, they always kill it, 
lest the faithful creature should lead to the dis- 
covery of his master. They think it to be a 
very good act to give a part of the plunder, 
which they get when they murder a person, to 
their goddess. If they fail to put him to death 
according to their rules, they suppose that they 
have made her angry, and they make offerings 


to her, that she may be appeased. Thus, you 
see that their religion teaches them to commit 
the blackest of crimes. 

The reason why this people gash and bury 
tlie bodies of those whom tliey murder, is as 
follows. They say that the goddess used to 
save them the trouble of burying the corpses 
of their victims by eating them, thus screening 
the murderers from all chance of being found 
out. Once, after the murder of a traveller, the 
body was, as usual, left unburied. One of the 
Phansiagars employed, unguardedly looking be- 
hind him, saw the goddess in the act of feast- 
ing upon it. This made her so angry, that she 
vowed never again to devour a body slaughter- 
ed by them; they having, by this one act of 
curiosity, forfeited her favor. However, as an 
equivalent for withdrawing her patronage, she 
plucked one of the fangs from her jaw, and 
gave it to them, saying that they might use it 
as a pickaxe, which would never wear out. 
She then opened her side and pulled out one 
of her ribs, which she gave them for a knife, 
whose edi'e nothin<2: could blunt. Havins: done 
this, she stooped down and tore off the hem of 
her garment, which she gave to them for a 


noose, declaring that it would never fail to 
strangle any person about whose throat it might 
])e cast. She moreover commanded them to 
gash and bury the bodies of those whom they 

The Phansiagars bring up their children to 
their own profession. To learn this, the boy is 
placed under the care of a tutor. Sometimes 
his father is his teacher. By him he is taught 
that it is just as proper to murder a man, as it 
is to kill a snake which lies in his path and 
would bite him as he passes. He is not per- 
mitted at first to see the murders, but merely 
a dead body ; his mind being gradually pre- 
pared for the sight. After this, the dreadful 
secret of his trade is, by degrees, told him. 
When he expresses a wish to be engaged in this 
horrid business, they tell him all about it. In 
the meantime he is allowed a small part of the 
plunder, in order that his desire to commit 
these murders may be increased ; since it is 
only by murder that the plunder is obtained. 
He is from time to time allowed to assist in 
some things, wliile the murder is taking place, 
or allowed to be present to see how the business 
is managed. It is not, however, until he be- 


comes a man, that he is permitted to apply the 
noose. To attain this privilege, he usually de- 
votes eight or ten years. Before he can com- 
mit a murder, his tutor must present him with 
a noose. This sets him loose upon the world, 
as a licensed murderer. When the tutor is 
about to give him the noose, he takes him 
apart, and solemnly enjoins it upon him to use 
it with skill, as it is to be the means of his earn- 
ing his food, and as his safety will depend upon 
the skill with which it is used. After he re- 
ceives it, he tries his skill in strangling a person 
the first opportunity that offers. 

By the course of education which the Phan- 
siagars undergo, they become so fond of their 
dreadful occupation, that nothing can induce 
them to quit it. Some who have been em- 
ployed in the East India Company's service, 
have always returned to their business when 
an opportunity offered of a successful enter- 

When the Phansiagars become old, they do 
not quit the service, but act as watchers, and 
decoy the traveller, by some false tale of dis- 
tress, into some distant place, where he is 


Women are sometimes admitted to the soci- 
ety of these plmiderers, and, on some occasions, 
are allowed to apply the noose. They select a 
handsome girl, and place her in a convenient 
spot, where, by her beauty, or by a false story 
of distress, she may decoy some unsuspecting 
traveller, and be the means of his destruction. 
Should he be on horseback, she will induce him 
to take her up behind him; after which, when 
an opportunity offers, she throws the noose 
over his head, leaps from the horse, drags him 
to the ground, and strangles him. I will men- 
tion an instance. It happened that a horseman 
of Coorg, in the Madras presidency, w^as pass- 
ing by a spot where one of these interesting- 
looking girls w^as stationed. She told him a 
piteous story of having been robbed and badly 
treated, and begged him to assist her. Feeling 
sorry for her, he offered to take her behind him, 
on his horse, and thus assist her a few miles on 
her journey. She expressed much gratitude 
for his kindness, and mounted. Soon after- 
wards she suddenly passed a noose over his 
head, and, drawing it with all her might, en- 
deavored to pull him from his saddle. At this 
moment, a number of Phansiagars started from 


the neiofhborinc]: thicket and surrounded him. 
The murderess then slipped from the horse ; 
but the Coor": striking? his heels into the horse's 
sides, it threw out its hind legs with great vio- 
lence, and struck to the ground the girl, who 
immediately let go the cord. He then drew 
his sword, and, cutting his way through the 
robbers, effected his escape. He wounded two 
of them severely. These men were shortly 
afterwards taken, and, through their means, 
twelve others fell into the hands of the judicial 
officers of the king of Coorg, including the girl 
who attempted the murder. They were all 
put to death. 

And is it possible that such persons can go to 
heaven ? How could such ever relish its pure 
joys ? What would they do, could they be ad- 
mitted there ? My dear children, it is a charity 
which has no foundation, to suppose that the 
heathen can go to heaven. I have preached the 
Gospel to tens of thousands of them, but I 
never saw one who had the least atom of a 
qualification for that holy place. " They have 
all gone out of the way." Every crime which 
the apostle Paul speaks of in the latter part of 
the first chapter of his epistle to the Romans, 


they commit, and crimes of so dreadful a 
nature that I cannot mention them — crimes 
which, should they be written in the Bible, 
would cause the Bible to be a sealed book for 



My dear Children — As the heathen have no 
Bible to direct them, they have devised various 
means by which they expect to obtain the favor 
of their gods, and get to heaven. I will men- 
tion some of these. 

Some burn a lamp in a temple. They think 
that this is a very meritorious act. Some roll 
on the ground after the god, as he is carried in 
a great car or chariot around the temple. It 
is customary for the people to build very high 
cars or chariots, and cover them with very 
beautiful cloths. They also tie the cocoa-nut 
blossom and plantain-tree within them, and 
attach great ropes to them. When they are 
ready to drag these cars, or chariots, they bring 
their gods of gold or of brass from the temples, 


and place them on them. Then one, two, three, 
six, nine hundred, and even a thousand persons, 
when the cars are very large, catch hold of 
these ropes and drag them around the temple. 
While they are doing this, many of the hea- 
then, to fulfil vows which they made when in 
sickness, and at other times of distress, throw 
themselves on the ground, and roll over from 
side to side, and frequently much injure them- 

Some swing on great hooks, w^hich are pass- 
ed through the tender parts of their backs. 
Sometimes they swing for half an hour ; some- 
times an hour. The longer they can bear the 
torture of the swinging, the more acceptable 
they suppose it will be to their goddess. It oc- 
casionally happens, that the iiesh in which the 
hoolrs are fastened gives way, in which case 
the poor creature is dashed to the ground. 
When this occurs, the people hold him in the 
greatest abhorrence. They judge him to be a 
great criminal, and suppose that he has met ;i 
violent death in consequence of sins which he 
committed in a former birth. 

Not long since, I attended one of these hook- 
swingings, not far from the city of Madura. It 

ScudJer'i TRlef. 6 


took place on the morning of June 8th, 1848, 
just twenty-nine years after I first left America 
for India. It should have taken place on the 
preceding afternoon ; but one of the axle-trees 
of the car, which was to support the machine 
on which the man was to be elevated in the 
air, was broken. Nothing, of course, could be 
done until it was repaired. The carpenters 
and others worked with great diligence until 
about eleven o'clock at night, when every thing- 
was prepared for the swinging. I expected 
immediately after this to witness the ceremony. 
It however did not take place until the morn- 
ing. "While waiting for the man who was 
to be swung to make his appearance, I took 
a pencil and made a drawing of the machine 
to which he was to be fastened. The picture 
on the first page of the book will give you some 
idea of it. 

You have, perhaps, often seen a well-sweep. 
The long beam in the picture is swung in the 
same manner as is the well-sweep, with a single 
exception. In addition to its usual motion, it 
is made to turn horizontally. The cuts which 
you may have seen, in two or three of my little 
books, differ much from the above ; of course 


different machines are used at dillerent times. 
There are stationary swingings, as well as 
swingings of the kind to which I just alluded. 
Between six and seven o'clock in the morn- 
ing, the man who was to be swung made his 
appearance for a few moments, and then disap- 
peared. The hooks by which he was to be 
swung, as well as the iron rods with which a 
number of devotees were immediately to pierce 
their sides, were carried through the streets, 
and held up that they might be seen by the 
people. Soon afterwards the man again ap- 
peared with the hooks in his back, and went 
up to the end of the beam to which he was to be 
fastened. This, of course, was lowered. Not- 
withstanding the dense multitudes of people, 
I made my way to the same spot, determined 
to be satisfied whether or not there was any de- 
ception in the application of the hooks. There 
was no deception. They passed through the 
skin, on the sides of the backbone. To these 
hooks were attached yellow ropes, by which he 
was fastened to the beam, as you will perceive 
in the picture. This being done, the men, five 
or six in number, who had hold of the ropes 
fastened to the end of the beam which you see 


resting on the ground, and which was then, of 
course, high in the air, drew him up until the 
beam lay horizontally. Then, after making 
him perform one circular motion around the 
car, they elevated him, as you see in the picture. 
When thus elevated, it was thought that he was 
forty feet from the ground. All being ready, 
the people seized the ropes which you see in 
front of the car, and began to draw it. Mr. 
Chandler and myself accompanied it through 
the streets, until it came to the place from 
which it set out. The distance of ground 
passed over w^as at least half a mile, and the 
time in which the journey was accomplished 
exceeded an hour. Of course he was swinging 
more than an hour. As the car passed through 
the streets, the people threw plantains from the 
tops of the houses to the crowds below. 

The man who was swung was adorned with 
flowers and other ornaments. He had a tinsel- 
led turban on his head. His body was rubbed 
over with a yellow paste, made, most probably, 
from the sandal- wood. Around his ankles were 
rings, hung with little bells, which he made to 
tinkle, as he was swinging, by striking his legs 
together. He wore a dark or black pair of 



pantaloons, which came a little below the knees, 
and which had a border of gold around them. 
He held a handkerchief in one hand, and a knife 
somewhat resembling a dagger, in the other. 
These he kept in constant motion, by moving 
his arms. On one occasion, a bunch of plan- 
tains was tied to one of the long ropes which 
vou see hanging down by the side of the swing- 
er. These he drew up, and afterwards scatter- 
ed over the neople on a house opposite to him. 

After following the 
car for a quarter of 
a mile or more, we 
went before it, and 
there witnessed an- 
otiicr appalling sight 
There were five or 
six men, who had the 
rods of iron which I 
just mentioned pass- 
ed through the skin 
of their sides. They 
were dancing along, 
and, as they danced, 
they made these rods go backward and forward 
throusfh the skin. 



After the car had reached the place from 
which it set out, the end of the beam from 
which the man was swinging was then lower- 
ed, and he was untied. Again I looked very 
carefully at the hooks in the back. The people 
say that no blood is shed by their introduction, 
and consider this to be a miracle. The falsity 
of this assertion was shown by the blood which 
I saw on the side of one of the wounds. 

I have been long in this country, and con- 
sequently have become so familiarized with 
heathenism, that my feelings, though deeply 
wounded at this sight, w^ere not so keenly af- 
fected as were those of my new associate, Mr. 
Chandler. He has been on heathen ground 
but a short time. When they tied the man to 
the beam, ho was unnerved and wellnigh over- 
come ; and he told me, that during all the time 
he was folloY>^ing the car, he felt like shedding 

While following the car, the young men of 
America came into my mind. They refuse to 
come, said I, to help these miserable creatures. 
0, they will not come — they will not come. I 
thought, that if many of the dear children of 
that land — children to whom I lately preached, 


as well as others, could witness this poor crea- 
ture swinging from the end of a long beam, 
far above the tops of the trees, and that, too, 
by hooks passing through the tender parts of 
his back, they would say, w^e wall, by and 
by, become missionaries, and, by the help of 
God, proclaim to the heathen that there is a 

On the evening of the day on which the 
swinging takes place, another act of great cru- 
elty is practised. Devotees throw themselves 
from the top of a high wall, or a scaffold of 
twenty or thirty feet in height, upon a bed of 
iron spikes, or on bags of straw with knives 
in them. Many are often mangled and torn. 
Others are quickly killed. 

At night, many of the devotees sit down in 
the open air, and pierce the skin of their fore- 
heads, by inserting a small rod of iron. To this 
is suspended a lamp, which is kept burning till 

Sometimes bundles of thorns are collected 
before the temple, among which the devotees 
roll themselves without any covering. These 
thorns are then set on fire, when they briskly 
dance over the flames. 



Other devotees swing before a slow fire; 
some stand between two fires, as you see iu 
this picture. 

Some have their breasts, arms, and other 
parts stuck entirely fall of pins, about the thick- 
ness of small nails, or packing needles. 

Another very cruel torture is practised. 
Some of the devotees make a vow. With one 


hand they cover their under lip with wet earth 
or mud. On this, with the other liand, they 
place some small grains, usually of mustard- 
seed. They then stretch themselves flat on 
their backs, exposed to the dews of night, and 
the blazing and scorching sun by day^ Their 
vow is, that from this position they will not 
stir, that they will not move nor turn, nor eat 
nor drink, till the seeds planted on their lips 
begin to sprout. This usually takes place on 
the third or fourth day. After this they arise, 
and then think that they are very holy. 

There is a class of devotees in this country 
called Yogis, whose object it is to root out every 
human feeling. Some live in holes and caves. 
Some drag around a heavy chain attached to 
them. Some make the circuit of an empire, 
creeping on their hands and knees. Some roll 
their bodies from the shores of the Indus to the 

The Rev. Mr. Heyer, in one of his letters 
from India, says, that an Indian devotee has 
^rent more than nine years on a journey from 
Benares to Cape Comorin, that is, from the 27th 
to the 7th degree of north latitude. The whole 
journey is made by rolling on the bare ground, 



from side to side. "When he comes to a river, 
of course he cannot roll over it. He therefore 
fords it, or passes over it in a boat, and then 
rolls on the banks of the river just as far as the 
river is wide. By doing this, he supposes that 
his determination to roll all the way is fully 
carried out. 

Some devotees hold up one or both arms, 
until the muscles become rigid, and their 
limbs become shrivelled into stumps. In the 
above cut, you have a representation of a man 
with one of these slirivelled arms. See how 



/one: liis fin^er-naily have c^rown. One has run 


tlirongh his hand 
and back through 
his arm. Some 
stretch them- 
selves on beds 
of iron s])ikes 
Some wear great square irons on their necks. 

I have seen not only a 

^oGi u^an, but a woman, with 

,^>aT these great square irons 

^S^t around their necks, each 

^ Br I 

\]^ nearly two feet in length 
and two feet in breadth 
These they put on for the 
purpose of fulfilling some 
vow which they have 
made. For instance, if 
a mother has a very sick 
little boy, she will say, 
" Now, vSwammie, if you 
will cure my little boy, 
I will have a square iron 
put on my neck, and wear 
it all my life." After this vow is madf , if the 
little boy gets well, the mother thinks ^hnt her 



Swammie has cured him, and to fulfil her en- 
gagement, she will have one of these irons put 
on her neck. 

Other devotees throw themselves from the 
tops of precipices, and are dashed to pieces; 
some bury themselves alive in holes, which 
their own relatives have dug ; some bind them- 
selves with ropes or chains to trees, until they 
die ; some keep gazing so long and so con- 
stantly at the heavens, that the muscles of 
their neck become contracted, and no aliment 
but liquids can pass into the stomach. 

But I will not continue this subject. You 
perceive, my dear children, what a wretched 
religion that must be which encourasfes its 
followers to perform such acts. And how vain 
are all these acts — how utterly destitute are 
they of any merit. Those who practise them 
are not made better by them, and they are 
just as far from the kingdom of heaven after 
having performed them, as they were before. 
The Christian religion encourages no such 
things. It tells us to perform no pilgrimages 
to holy places, to inflict no self-tortures. But 
it has its requirements, and these are very 
simple, and may easily be performed by all 

SELF -TORTl'RK. 12.') 

who are willing to do their duty. These re- 
quirements are, repentance, forsaking sin, faith 
in Christ, and a supreme devotedness to his 
service. Have you, my dear children, attended 
to tliese requirements ? If not, you are in a 
much worse condition than these poor heathen 
of whom you have been reading. They are 
not as guilty before God as you are. They 
know not their Master's will. .Still, they must 
perish, unless the Gospel is sent to them. But 
though they perish, their punishment will be 
lighter than the punishment of those who re- 
fuse to love and obey the Saviour. That ser- 
vant who knows his Lord's will, and prepares 
not himself, neither does according to his will, 
shall be beaten with many stripes. But he 
that knows not, and does commit things worthy 
of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. 
Should it be your sad lot to perish at last, it 
would be far better for you to go down to hell 
enveloped in all the darkness of a heathen 
land, than to go down to hell from a land of 
such gospel light and privileges as you enjoy. 




My dear Children — From what I have al- 
ready told you, you know that the Hindoos are 
a cruel people. But I have not told you of the 
extent to which they carry their cruelty. Per- 
haps it is shown to the highest degree in their 
practice of the suttee, or burning of widows. 
The British have abolished this rite throughout 
their dominions in India. They have also 
made great exertions to have it abolished in 
the territories of the native princes, but I am 
sorry to say, that in some of these territories 
it is still practised. Within the last three 
years, twenty- three of the princes just alluded 
to, have issued orders for its abolishment 
throughout their dominions. These orders 
have probably been issued solely in conse- 
quence of their fear of the British power, for 
it is a practice which is riveted in the affec- 
tions of the people. This power they know 
that it will be dangeroLis to resist. 

In my " Sermon to Children, on the Condi- 
tion of the Heathen," I mentioned, that the 


sacred books of the' heathen encourage the 
suttee. I also mentioned several instances, in 
which widows had been burned to death with 
the corpses of their husbands. Even though 
you may have seen that book, it will be well 
for me to give you two or three other cases, to 
impress your minds more fully with the hor- 
rors of the Hindoo religion. The first took 
place in a village of Tanjore. A merchant 
having died, his wife, who was about thirty 
years old, determined to burn herself with his 
corpse. The news of what she was going to 
do, quickly spread in every direction, and large 
numbers of people collected to witness the 
burning. After she was adorned with jew- 
els, and dressed in her best clothing, and after 
her body was tinged with the yellow infusion 
of sandal-wood and saftron, bearers arrived to 
take away the corpse with the wretched wo- 
man. The body of the man was placed on a 
car, ornamented with costly stuffs, flowers, etc. 
There he was seated like a living man, ele- 
gantly decorated with all his jewels, and 
clothed in rich attire. 

The corpse being carried first, the wife fol- 
lowed in a rich palanquin. As she went along. 


the surrounding multitudes of people stretched 
out their hands towards her to show how much 
they admired her conduct. The women in 
particular went up to her to wish her joy, ap- 
parently desiring to receive her blessing, or at 
least, that she would pronounce over them 
some pleasing word. She tried to satisfy them 
all, saying to one, that she would long continue 
to enjoy her worldly happiness, and to another, 
that she would be the mother of many beauti- 
ful children. Another was informed, that she 
would soon arrive at great honor in the world. 
These, and similar expressions, she made to 
all who came near her, and they departed with 
the full belief that they would enjoy all the 
blessings of which she had spoken. She also 
distributed among them some betel-leaves, 
which they gladly received as relics, or some- 
thinsf of blessed influence. 

During the whole procession, which was 
very long, her countenance was serene and 
even cheerful, until they came to the pile upon 
which she was to die. Then she suddenly be- 
came pensive. She no longer attended to what 
was passing around her. Her looks were wildly 
fixed upon the pile. Her face grew pale. She 


trembled with fear, and seemed ready to faint 

The Brahmins, wlio took the lead in tliis 
ceremony, witli her relations, seeing her sad 
condition, ran to her, and endeavored to restore 
her spirits, but she seemed not to know what 
they said, and answered not a word. 

They made her quit the palanquin, and her 
nearest relatives took her to a pond of water 
which was near the pile, where they washed 
her. They then attended her to the pile, on 
which the corpse of her husband had already 
been laid. It was surrounded with Brahmins, 
each with a lighted torch in one hand, and a 
bowl of melted butter in the otlier, all ready, 
as soon as the poor victim was placed on the 
pile, to envelope her in fire. 

The relatives armed with muskets, sabres, 
and other weapons, stood closely around in a 
double line, for the purpose, it was said, of 
makinj? her afraid, if she mis^ht wish to draw 
back, or of frightening any body who might 
pity her, and endeavor to rescue her. 

At length the time for firing the pile being 
proclaimed, the young widow was stripped of 
her jewels, and led on towards the pile. She 

Scuiid<*r's Talri. 9 


was then commanded to walk three times 
around it, two of her nearest relations support- 
ing her by the arms. The first round she 
accomplished with tottering steps ; but in the 
second, her strength forsook her, and she faint- 
ed away in the arms of those who were holding 
her. They were obliged to drag her between 
them for the third round. Then senseless, she 
was thrown upon the corpse of her husband. 
At that instant, the multitude made the air to 
ring with their shouts of gladness, while the 
Brahmins poured the butter on the dry wood, 
and applied the torches. Instantly the whole 
pile was in a blaze. 

As soon as the flames began to rage, the 
poor woman, now in the midst of them, was 
called upon by name, from all sides ; but as 
insensible as the corpse on which she lay, she 
made no answer. She entered eternity, suffo- 
cated at once, most probably, by the flames. 

The second case of suttee which I shall men- 
tion, took place at the death of the rajah, or 
king of Tanjore. He left behind him four 

The Brahmins havinsf determined that two 
of these four should be burned with the corpse 


of their husband, and having ^elected the two 
whom they tliought best to sacrifice, they told 
them of what awaited them. They received 
the information with apparent joy. A refusal 
would have been attended with their utter dis- 

One day only was necessary to get ready for 
the funeral ceremonies. They were conducted 
as follows : In a field somewhat distant from 
tlie palace, the people made a hollow, not very 
deep, but about twelve or fifteen feet square. 
Within it they made a pyramid of the sweet- 
smelling sandal-wood. On the middle of the 
pyramid, a scaffold was built in such a man- 
ner that the posts could easily be taken away, 
by which means the scaffold would fall at once. 
On the four corners of the platform, large jars 
were placed, filled with melted butter, to be- 
smear the pyramid, that it might be the more 
easily set on fire. 

The following was the order of the proces- 
sion. It was headed by a great number of sol- 
diers under arms. They were followed by a 
multitude of musicians, chiefly trumpeters, 
who made the air reecho with their melancholy 
sounds. Next came the body of the king upon 


a splendid palanquin, richly adorned. This 
was surrounded by the nearest relations, and 
by the priest of the king. They were all on 
foot, and without their turbans in token of 
mourning. A large party of Brahmins formed 
around them as an immediate escort. The 
two wives who were to be burned with the 
corpse came next, each borne on a palanquin. 
During the journey they appeared calm and 
cheerful. The troops kept off the immense 
crowds who were assembled from every direc- 

The two queens, loaded with jewels, were 
attended by their favorite women, with whom 
they occasionally conversed, and by their rela- 
tions of both sexes. To many of these they 
had made presents before leaving the palace. 
They were also accompanied by thousands of 
Brahmins, collected from different quarters. 
These were followed by an innumerable mul- 
titude of persons of both sexes. When they 
arrived at the ground where they were to be 
burned, the two victims were made to descend 
from their palanquins, for the purpose of per- 
forming the preparatory ceremonies. They 
went through the whole without showing any 


fear until towards the close, when their coun- 
tenances began to change, and their three cir- 
cuits around the pile were not performed with- 
out considerable effort to maintain calmness. 

In the meantime, the body of the king had 
been placed on the scaffold over the platform. 
The two queens were also laid down beside the 
corpse, one on the right hand, and the other on 
the left, and they joined hands by stretching 
them over the body. The astrologer having 
then declared that the happy moment was 
come for firing the pile, the Brahmins repeated 
several prayers in a loud voice, and sprinkled 
the pile with holy water. When these cere- 
monies were finished, a signal was given, and 
the pillars which supported the pyramid and 
the scaffold were suddenly taken away. Im- 
mediately the women were covered with the 
falling mass of timber, which tumbled over 
them with a crash. At the same instant the 
pile was fired in all its parts. On one side, 
the nearest relative of the king applied his 
torch, and on the other side, the priest ; while 
the Brahmins, in every quarter, were pouring 
jars of melted butter on the flames, creating 
so intense a heat as must instantly have con- 


sumed the victims. Then the multitude shout- 
ed for joy, and the relations approaching the 
pile also set up a loud cry, calling them by 
their names. They supposed that they heard 
a voice in answer pronouncing Enna ? that is, 
What? but the fall of the platform, and the 
immediate bursting out of the flames, must 
have stifled them at once. 

Such was the miserable end of these poor 
unhappy queens — unhappy victims of the most 
cruel religion that ever disgraced the earth. 

Not unfrequently the sons take a prominent 
part in destroying their mothers. This will 
appear from the following case. A Brahmin 
died, and was brought to the place of burning. 
His wife was fastened to the pile, and the fire 
was kindled, but the night was dark and rainy. 
When the fire began to scorch the poor woman, 
she contrived to disentangle herself from the 
dead body, and creeping from under the pile, 
hid herself among some brushwood. In a little 
time it was discovered that there was but one 
body on the pile. The relations immediately 
took the alarm, and searched for the poor crea- 
ture. The son soon dragged her forth, and in- 
sisted that she should throw herself on the pile 




again, or dr<nMi in- linirj^ iifi>rii. ^ne pleaded 
for her life at the hands of her own son, and 
declared that she could not embrace so horrid 
a death ; but she pleaded in vain. He urged, 
that he should lose his caste if she were spared, 
and added, that either he or she must die. Un- 
able to persuade her to hang or drown herself, 
the son and the others present tied her hands 
and feet, and threw her on the funeral pile, 
Avhere she quickly perished. 

I observed that the rite of suttee is riveted 
in the affections of this people. The following 


communications from two of the native princes 
who lately consented to put a stop to this rite, 
will show you that this is the case. The rajah 
of Oorcha declares, that "no subject of his state 
shall in future be permitted to become a sut- 
tee, though according to the Shasters, it is no 
doubt very meritorious for a widow to die of 
grief for the death of her husband." The rajah 
of Sumpthem says, " The practice of suttee is 
so very old, and has been countenanced and 
encouraged by the wise men of so many gener- 
ations, that I have never thought myself justi- 
fied in interposing to prevent it ; but my anx- 
iety to meet the wishes of the governor-general 
in this and in all things, is so great, that I 
have waived all other considerations, and for- 
bidden suttee." 

If the British were to lose their power in 
India, the suttee would immediately be rees- 
tablished. Power has put it down, but power 
alone will never root it out of the affections of 
the people. Nothing but the Gospel can do 
this. that Christians would think of this, 
and hasten, yea, with great haste, to send this 
blessed Gospel to them. 




My dear Children— You have been mucli 
pained by reading the account of the suttee, or 
burning of widows, as described in the last 
chapter It would be very pleasant to my feel- 
ings, as you may well suppose, could I inform 
you that my tales of the misery of this people 
are at an end; but I must tell you of scenes 
even, if possible, more shocking. At a place 
called Goomsoor, not far from the great tem- 
ple of Juggernaut, there is a race of people 
called Khonds, who offer up human sacrifices 
in a very horrid manner. Their victims are 
generally bought or stolen from the low coun- 
try, and sold to them for this purpose. 

'l will mention one or two of the ways in 
which these sacrifices are performed, though 1 
should be glad to tell you nothing about them, 
as they are so cruel. But I must tell you ; for 
if I do not, you can never know how to pity 
these poor creatures, and pray and labor for 
them as you should do. 

When the day which has been appointed for 



the sacrifice arrives, the Khonds assemble from 
all parts of the country, dressed in their finery ; 
some with bear-skins thrown over their shoul- 
ders, others with the tails of peacocks flowing 
behind them, and the long winding feather of 
the jungle-cock waving over their heads. Thus 
decked, they dance, leap, rejoice, beat drums, 

and play on an instrument not unlike in sound 
to the Highland pipe. In the afternoon the 
priest, with the aid of an assistant, proceeds to 
fasten the victim for sacrifice — either a man 


or a woman, or a boy or a girl — to a post which 
has been firmly fixed in the ground. Near this 
post stand a crowd of the savage Khonds, witli 
knives in their hands. At an appointed signal, 
they rush upon the poor creature, and try who 
can cut the first piece of flesh from his bones. 
G-reat value is attached to the first morsel 
which is thus cut out, as it is supposed to pos- 
sess peculiar virtues. This is buried in the 
earth before sunset. 

In Guddapoor, a different sacrifice precedes 
this. A trench seven feet long is dug, over 
which a human being is suspended alive, by 
the neck and feet, which are fastened with ropes 
to stakes firmly fixed in the ground, at each 
end of the excavation ; so that to prevent stran- 
gulation, he is compelled to support himself 
with his hands over each side of his "rave. 
The presiding priest, after the performance of 
various ceremonies in honor of the goddess, 
takes an axe and inflicts six cuts, at equal dis- 
tances from the feet to the back of tlie neck, 
repeating the numbers one, two, three, and so 
forth, as he proceeds, rondi, rendi, munjee^ 
iialge, chins^'i, sajg-i, and at the seventh, arg-i, 
cuts oft' his head. The body falls into the pit. 


and is covered with earth. There are other 
districts where these sacrifices are performed 
in a different manner. Some destroy the vic- 
tims by heavy blows from the metal bangles, 
which they purchase at the fairs and wear on 
these occasions. If the poor creature is not 
killed by two or three of these heavy blows 
inflicted on his head, they strangle him with 
a cleft bamboo, which they slip over his neck. 
Others destroy their victims by placing thetn 
on the ground, bound hand and feet, with their 
faces downward, and by throwing large stones 
violently on the back of their necks, until life 
becomes extinct. In Patna, the people do not 
use much of the flesh of their victims — fre- 
quently none at all. In some districts they cut 
out the liver — in others the lungs, and after 
chopping them up in small pieces, bury them. 
It is customary, among some tribes, to draw a 
cup full of blood from the body, and each fam- 
ily takes a little of it, and sprinkles it on the 
floor of their houses. While doing this, they 
implore blessings on their households and on 
their fields. 

I have already mentioned, that the victims 
whom the Khonds sacrifice are generally bought 


or stolen from the low country, and are sold to 
them. Had yon, my dear children, been horn 
in that part of India, some of yon might have 
been thus bought, or stolen from your parents, 
and sold to this wretched people to be sacrificed. 

Several years ago, child-stealing was a very 
frequent thing in Madras, the great city where 
I now live. ]\[any parents were desolate from 
having lost their children. Possibly these chil- 
dren were taken to Goomsoor to be sacrificed. 

It was not until the military operations of 
the British took place in Upper and Lower 
Groomsoor, in 1836 and 1837, that this cruel 
rite of immolating hnman beings, among the 
neighboring hill-tribes, was brought to light; 
and it was not until that time that the first 
victims destined for sacrifice were rescued from 
them. Captain Millar was the honored instru- 
ment in rescuing these victims, twelve in num- 
ber ; and his services were acknowledged in the 
following manner by the Madras government. 

" Captain Millar will realize in his own mind 
an ample reward for his most commendable 
conduct, in having rescued twelve victims des- 
tined for these horrible sacrifices, as the grat- 
ifying reflection of having been the means of 


saving so many human beings from a cruel 
and untimely death cannot fail, at all times, 
to he a source of genuine happiness to him. 
The discretion, however, with which he con- 
tinued to effect his humane purpose, is entitled 
to the warmest and most unqualified approba- 
tion of government." 

In the year 1838, Captain Campbell rescued 
a much lai'ger number of these victims. He 
writes, "I have been most fortunate in my late 
expedition among the wild Khonds of Groom- 
soor, and have rescued no less than one hun- 
dred and three children of various ages, who 
were intended for sacrifice by these barbarians. 
These children are now at head-quarters, and 
form a most interesting group, happy, such of 
them as were aware of their situation, in hav- 
ing escaped the fate which awaited them." 

I am acquainted with Captain MacYiccar, 
a very good man, who has been one of the 
British agents ''for the suppression of human 
sacrifices and female infanticide in the hill- 
tracts of Orissa." His constitution has been 
brolcen down by his labors on these unhealthy 
hills. He is now on his way to England, for 
the purpose of recruiting his health. I learned 


from him tliut the whole number of victims 
who have been rescued, up to this time, from 
those hill-tracts, amounts to more than nine- 
teen hundred. Of them, no less ihan five hun- 
dred were rescued by himself and his assistant 
Captain Frye, only a few months ago. I am 
now writing in the year 1851. 

After the arrival of the British troops in the 
Khond country, a female found her way to the 
collector's camp with fetters on her legs. She 
had escaped from those who had charge of her, 
and said that she had been sold by her own 
brother, for the purpose of being sacrificed. 

Thus you see, my dear little girls, if such 
are now my readers, that if you had been born 
in the place where this woman was born, your 
own brother might have sold you, perhaps for 
not more than a dollar, to have the flesh cut 
from your bones while alive; and if you have 
never given your hearts to Christ, you ought 
to do this immediately, from gratitude to Him 
who has made you to differ from these besotted 
and cruel heathen. 

But I must tell you of another individual 
who escaped from the Khonds. His name is 
Jov Sinir. He had witnessed one of their sac- 


rifices. He had seen a child put in the cleft 
of a small tree, which had been split for this 
purpose. He had seen how this child was held 
fast in that position, by the split parts of the 
tree having closed upon its body ; and while it 
was thus secured, he had seen the flesh cut 
from its bones. You will not therefore wonder 
that he was filled with horror at the thought 
of meeting such a doom. Neither wdll you 
wonder at his determination to make the very 
last possible effort to free himself from the 
hands of his intended murderers. The effort 
was made; but it was, at first, unsuccessful. 
After travelling for two days through the jun- 
gle, he was recaptured by his owners, and put 
in irons. His courage, however, did not fail. 
He determined to make another attempt to 
escape, though he could only crawl along, in 
consequence of the irons on his legs. Thus fet- 
tered, he travelled for two days and two nights, 
and when he had just reached the foot of the 
mountains, he again espied those who were in 
pursuit of him. Providentially, Captain Mil- 
lar, of whom I have already spoken, had en- 
camped near the place where he was. To this 
encampment he hastened, as we may well 

THE KirONDS. 145 

5;uppose, with all the speed which he could 
command, scarcely daring to look behind him; 
and happily he reached it in safety. On his 
arrival, he endeavored to make known his tale 
oT woe by his looks and his tears; and these 
looks and tears spoke a language which this 
oflicer could not misunderstand. His irons 
were taken off. He was once more free. 

Of the children rescued from the Khonds, 
many have been sent by the British govern- 
ment to the schools which have been established 
by the missionaries of the cross. Connected 
with a station where a very dear fellow-laborer 
of mine — the Rev. ^Ir. Wilkinson — resides, a 
station about ten miles distant from the first, 
range of mountains inhabited by the Khonds, 
there are two schools, one for the boys and the 
other for the girls who have been rescued from 
this wretched people. From the brother just 
alluded to, I learned the following interesting 
fact. A few years ago, a number of these 
rescued victims arrived at the gate of the mis- 
sion house, on their way to the sea-coast. The 
children of the schools went out to see them. 
Belonging to the female school, there was a 
little girl who thought that she recognized her 

Saiiddw'i Tales. 1 



brother among the strangers. In a few minutes 
she was seen comins^ forward leadino- him by 
the hand, and was heard exclaiming Avith joy, 
"I have found my brother." Mr. Wilkinson 
said to her, "How do you know that he is your 
brother? Perhaps you are mistaken." " no, 
papa," said she, " I am not mistaken. I thought, 
when I saw him at the gate, that he looked just 
like a little brother I had when I was taken 
from my home, only he was smaller. So I 
said to myself, if he is my brother, he will 
know his own name. So I called out. Pod, 


Pod, and he lifted up his head and came run- 
ning to my arms." And this sister wept over 
her little brother, and kissed him, and at last, 
catching him up, she bore him away to her 

The Rev. Mr. Sutton relates the case of two 
brothers, Avho met under similar circumstan- 
ces. They had both been sold at different 
times to the Khonds, for sacrifices, by their 
cruel and unnatural uncle. 

Among the victims formerly rescued from 
the Khonds, there was a very awkward lad 
who was called David. G-reat pains were 
taken to instruct him; but he was so stupid 
that all their efforts appeared to be useless. 
At last he was devoted to the work of sweep- 
ing the premises of the mission house. "At 
this time," says Mr. Sutton, "our school was 
very full, and many of the young natives had 
been converted. All at once, a ray of intelli- 
gence seemed to break upon the mind of poor 
David. He seemed suddenly to be possessed 
r)f new faculties. All were astonished at his 
understanding and his answers. He now ap- 
plied himself so diligently, and was profited 
so much by the instruction afforded, tliat he 



was subsequently received into our church. 
Soon afterwards, he was taken into the print- 
ing-office, and as he made rapid advances in 
his new business, he was made a compositor. 
Wliile thus engaged, and amazing us all by 
his sudden proficiency, there appeared on his 
skin numerous white spots — the first indica- 
tions of leprosy, a very common, and also a 
very fatal disease, in India. We sent him to 
the hospital, and every care was taken of him ; 
but each of the white spots became a putrid 
ulcer, and his limbs were much eaten away. 
Nothing could arrest the progress of his mal- 
ady, or save his life; and as there was danger 

that he might communicate his disease to 
others by coming in contact with them, the 

THE Kllu.\D.<. 1-19 

doctor directed that he should be kept by him- 
self. A tent was provided for him, from which 
he would creep at service-time to the door of 
our meeting-room, and join in the service. A 
more interested listener I never beheld. One 
day, I went with my wife to pay him a visit. 
He was stretched on his mat. His Testament 
was close to his side. His hymn-book was in 
his hand, and we saw that his attention had 
been riveted on the following verses. 

•• Of all that decks the field or bower, 
Thou art the fairest, sweetest flower ; 
Then blessed Jesus, let not me 
In thy kind heart forgotten be. 

Day after day youth's joys decay, 
Death waits to seize the trembling prey; 
Then, blessed Jesus, let not me 
In thy kind heart forgotten be. 

When we left his tent, my wife said to me, 
with great emphasis and emotion, 'There lies 
an heir of glory; for though like Lazarus lie 
is full of sores, like Lazarus also he is rich in 
assured hope.' I could not but concur in the 

"Soon after this, the spirit of this afflicted 
but happy youth took its flight, as we have 


every reason to believe, to the bosom of his 
Saviour — rescued by the British from the hands 
of the cruel Khonds, and rescued from eternal 
torment in consequence of his having been sold 
to them for the purpose of being sacrificed. How 
mysterious are the ways of Providence." 

Should it be the sad lot of any of you, my 
dear children, not to reach heaven at last, what 
will you say in the day of judgment, when you 
find this youth among the company of the re- 
deemed, but yoarselves among the company of 
the lost ? 0, that word lost — that dreadful, that 
dismal word lost! "What a living scorpion 
will it be to your deathless souls," /or ever I 

But let me hope for better things. Let me 
hope that you are not to be lost. If, bow- 
ever, I am to entertain such a hope, there 
must be a change in you as great as is the 
chans^e from death to life — a chans^e from sin 
to holiness. You might as well expect to go 
down to the sea, and dwell beneath the surface 
of its waters, as expect to go to heaven in your 
present state, if unconverted. You must be 
born again, or you cannot enter into the king- 
dom of God. Christ, who is now to you as a 
root out of dry ground, and in whom you see 

THE KllONDS. 151 

no form nor comeliness, must become the su- 
preme object of your desires. Him you must 
esteem as the chiefest among ten thousand, and 
the One altos^ether lovelv. To him you must 
make an entire consecration of yourselves. 
Alas, alas, that you should have slighted him 
so long. Alas, that v/hen he has come to the 
door of your hearts, and knocked for admis- 
sion, you should have treated him as you have 
(lone — treated him with, an incivility which you 
would not use to a passing stranger. You 
have, in effect, said to him, AVho art thou, that 
we should obey thee? Thou shalt not enter 
into our hearts, nor reign there. My dear 
children, I long to see this rebellion of yours 
brought to an end. It must come to an end. 
It will never answer for you to continue to 
Jishonor and grieve and wound this adorable 
Being, as you have done. Only think of his 
^.ove to perishing sinners. Think of what he 
aad to undergo and suffer, to procure their sal- 
vation. Think of the obstacles he had to meet 
with, while engaged in accomplishing this mo- 
mentous work. God the Father gave him up 
to die; earth and hell were against him; and 
even the very sinners whom he came to save 


were against him. To purchase their salva- 
tion, he had to tread his weary way to the 
tomb with no one to accompany him — to tread 
it through tears and groans, and under the edge 
of the sword of divine justice. He was trod- 
den, as it were, in the wine-press of the fierce- 
ness of the wrath of Abnighty (rod. And can 
you think of this love of his, and your hearts 
not be melted? Can you see no beauty iu 
Jesus, that you should desire him? Are your 
eyes holden, that you cannot behold his all- 
attractive charms? 

'■'• 0, that all the blind but knew him. 
And would be advised by rne ; 
Surely they would hasten to him — 
He would cause them all to see." 

I have been giving you a description of the 
wretched Khonds of Goomsoor. Suppose that 
you were among them, and that you were now 
in the same condition with the little child of 
which I have told you — the little child which 
was placed in the cleft of a split tree, for the 
purpose of having the flesh cut from its bones ; 
and suppose that the good man, of whose name 
you have already heard, the agent of the Brit- 
ish government, should come and rescue you 

THE KilOXDS. 153 

from such a fearfal death ; would you not love 
him to tlie end of your life? Would any 
thing be too hard for you to do for such a 
friend? And has Jesus come down from heav- 
en to save sinners from being cast into ever- 
lasting burnings; and is he stretching out his 
hand and entreating you to grasp it, that you 
may be saved from this awful doom; and will 
you not grasp it, and be saved? And will you 
not love him, and love him mtich, for such kind- 
ness — love him to such a degree, that nothing 
will be too hard for you to do to glorify him? 
What, not love that Saviour who stands ready 
to save you from eternal death, when you 
would love one of your fellow-men for saving 
you from temporal death? 

'• Behold a stranger at the door, 
He gently knocks, has knocked before, 
Has waited long, is waiting still — 
You treat no other friend so ill. 

O. lovely attitude ! He stands 
With melting heart and loaded hands; 
0, matchless kindness ! and he shows 
This matchless kindness to his foes. 

But will he prove a friend indeed ? 
He will, the very friend you need ; 
The Friend of sinners — yes, 'tis he, 
With garments dyed on Calvary. 


Rise, touched with gratitude divine; 
Turn out his enemy and thine. 
That soul-destroying monster, sin, 
And let the heavenly stranger in. 

Admit him ere his anger burn — 
His feet departed, ne'er return : 
Admit him. or the hour 's at hand 
You '11 at his door rejected stand." 




My dear Children — The sacred books of tlic 
Hindoos encourage revenge. In the Vedas, 
which are the most sacred books, are laid 
down forms of religious service, or acts of 
worship, which are designed to injure or de- 
stroy their enemies. When a person wishes 
to have his enemy destroyed, he goes to a 
Brahmin or priest, and secures his supposed 
aid. The Brahmin, before he proceeds to 
his work, clothes himself with a black gar- 
ment. He also makes four images of the foe, 
and clothes these with black garments. He 
then kindles a sacrificial fire, and after the 
performance of various ceremonies, he takes 
pieces of some animal which has been conse- 
crated for the purpose, and throws them into 
this fire. On every occasion when he makes 
this burnt-offering, he touches the mouth of 
the image of this enemy, uttering one or other 
of the forms of prayer which are written in the 
sacred books. Of these, the following are a 
few : " Agni," god of fire, " thou who art 


the mouth of all gods, do thou destroy the wis- 
dom of my enemy." '' Agni, fill with dis- 
traction the mind of this my enemy." '' 
Agni, destroy the senses of this my enemy." 
" Agni, make dumb the mouth of this my 
enemy." " Agni, fasten with a peg the 
tongue of this my enemy." " Agni, reduce 
to ashes this my enemy." 

How different, my dear children, is- the re- 
liction of Jesus from the relii^ion of which I 
have been giving you a description. No pre- 
cepts teach us that we may injure or destroy 
our enemies. On the contrary, they teach us 
to love them, and do them good. Let me re- 
peat to you some of the words which our Sav- 
iour spoke on this point. " Ye have heard 
that it hath been said. Thou shalt love thy 
neighbor, and hate thine enemy ; but I say 
unto you, love your enemies, bless them that 
curse you, do good to them that hate you, and 
pray for them that despitefully use you and 
persecute you, that ye may be the children of 
your Father which is in heaven ; for he maketh 
his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, 
and sendeth rain on the just and on the un- 

A rf;ven(;eful religion. 157 

One of the young Hindoos in Dr. Duffs 
school in Calcutta, when reading the above 
and similar passages, was so struck with the 
difference between these precepts and the pre- 
cepts of his Shasters, that he could not but ex- 
claim, " 0, how beautiful, how divine. Surely 
this is the truth — this is the truth — ^this is the 
truth." The consequence was, that he never 
could rest until he had thrown aside his sacred 
books and his idols, and embraced that Sav- 
iour whose precepts appeared to him to be so 
beautiful. And was this heathen so struck 
with the beauty of the precepts of the Bible — 
so struck, that he had no peace until he gave 
himself to his Saviour ? And have you ever, 
my dear children, been struck with the pre- 
cepts of your Saviour — so struck with them, 
that you could never rest until you had given 
up your hearts to him ? If not, how great is 
the contrast between you and that young Hin- 
doo. He gave his heart to the Saviour. You 
withhold yours. He, through grace, will dwell 
for ever with Christ in heaven. You, if you 
continue in your present awful condition, must 
be banished from his presence, and cast into 
hell, where you shall be tormented day and 


night for ever, with the devil and his angels. 
Flee, my dear children, flee to the Saviour 
now, if you have never yet done so. Flee to 
him, and then you also shall dwell for ever with 



My dear Children — From what I have pre- 
viously stated, you are aware that the Hin- 
doos are a very deceitful people. Let me give 
you another instance of their deception. A 
late head catechist of one of my missionary 
brethren was, before his conversion, the priest 
of a temple. A man from whom about one 
thousand rupees' worth of jewels and similar 
things had been stolen, came to this priest, and 
promised to reward him well, if he would de- 
tect the thief, and secure to him the restora- 
tion of his property. The priest promised to 
comply with his wishes ; and in order to effect 
his purpose, he had drums beaten through the 
village, and prbclaimed, that at a certain time 
he would hold a meetins: and detect the thief. 

nrrrPTFON. I59 

At the appointed time, a large concourse of 
people assembled, the priest appearing in the 
midst of them with a cocoa-nut bound around 
with saflVon-cords. He then told them, that 
if, after putting down the cocoa-nut, it should 
move of its own accord towards him, they 
might know that he \\1:)uld be able certainly 
to detect the thief; and added, that after it had 
thus moved, it would pursue the offender, and 
follow him until it would break his head. He 
then performed certain ceremonies calculated 
to awaken superstitious feelings in the minds 
of the people, and laid the cocoa-nut down at a 
little distance from him. To the great amaze- 
ment of all present, it began to move towards 
the priest, and continued to move until it 
reached his feet. This being done, he told the 
people, tliat they might conclude from what 
they had seen, that the cocoa-nut would follow 
the thief until it would break his head. He 
consented, however, to give him a little grace — 
to spare his life until the next day; adding his 
advice, that the thief, whoever he might be, 
had better come to him privately, and tell him 
where the property was. In the dead of the 
night, a tap was heard at the door of the priest ; 


the thief presented himself, and delivered up 
the property. The priest received a present 
from the owner of the property, and rewarded 
the thief for his promptness. After this man 
was converted, he was asked how he contrived 
to make the cocoa-nut move towards him. 
"Why, sir," he answ^'ed, "if you will care- 
fully divide a cocoa-nut, scoop out the kernel 
. from one-half of it, enclose a strong, lively rat, 
put the parts of the cocoa-nut together, and 
bind the whole with safFron-cords, to prevent 
the crack being seen, and then place it on a 
declivity previously prepared, it is clear, that 
if you place yourself at the foot of this decliv- 
ity, the rat will twirl the cocoa-nut, and cause 
it to descend until it reaches your feet." 



My dear Children — In my Sermon to Chil- 
dren, before alluded to, I mentioned a few par- 
ticulars to prove that the people of India are 
very superstitious. Let me mention a few 

H I N I) O o s u r C R s r ITl ( > N . 1 G I 

more. It is said that no act, however good it 
may be, if performed on Sunday, will succeed. 
Some will not eat at all on Sunday, until they 
have seen a certain bird — the bird on which 
the god Vrishnoo rides. If a man rubs oil on 
his head on ]\Ionday, and bathes, he will com- 
mit a sin equal to the sin of destroying a tem- 
])le of Siva. If he has his hair cut on Tuesday, 
he will become poor. Even to worship the 
gods on Wednesday, is bad. If a person takes 
medicine on Thursday, his sickness will be in- 
creased. Should he lend any thing on Friday, 
he will lose his property. If he should buy a 
new cloth on Saturday, take it home, and keep 
it there, death may be the consequence. Should 
he die on this day, some other member of the 
family will die on the following week. 

If the foundation of a house is laid in June, 
the destruction of that house will follow. 
Should a family enter a new house in j\[arch, 
some member of the family will die. If a mar- 
riage is celebrated in September, the husband 
and wife will fight with each other. 

Should a thunderbolt fall on a house, or a 
vulture alight on it, some evil will befall the 
people living in it. If a crow should strike 

Sciidder's Tiles. 1 I 


any person on the head with its wings, some 
of his relations will die. Should a cat or a 
snake cross his path, it would be an indication 
of evil. In the latter case, one of his relations 
will die. If, when returning home, a person 
should meet him bearing a light, a quarrel will 
be the result. 

After a person has left his house, should he 
meet a single Brahmin, or a woman who has 
had her head shaved, or a dumb or a blind man, 
or a washerman or a barber, the object for 
which he left would not succeed. Or, when 
going out, should he hit his head against the 
top of the door-frame, or should any one ask him 
where he was going, or should he happen to 
sneeze, he would consider these things as hin- 
derances to his going, and reenter the house. 

Should a son or a daughter be born on the 
new moon in April, they will become thieves. 
If a person is born under the planet Saturn, he 
will be slandered, his riches will be dissipated, 
and his wife, son, and friends will be destroyed. 
He will also be at variance with others, and 
endure many sufferings. Should he be born 
under the planet Mars, he will be full of anx- 
ious thoughts, be imprisoned, and oppressed 


with fear from robbers, fire, etc. He also will 
lose his lands, trees, and good name. 

If a person dreams that a monkey has bitten 
him, he will die in six months ; or if he dreams 
that bedbugs, in large numbers, are creeping 
over his body to bite him, he will die in eight 
days. Should he dream that a dog has bitten 
him, he will die in three years ; or should he 
dream that a dead person has appeared to him 
and spoken to him, he will die immediately. 

If a man has a little head, he will become 
rich. If he has a large head, he will be poor. 
If his forehead is wide, he will live a hundred 
years. If he has a small neck, he will be a 
murderer. If the second toe is long, he will 
be a bad man. If a woman has curly hair, 
she will not prosper. If her nose is long, she 
will have a good disposition. If her ear is wide, 
she will tell falsehoods. If she has a mole on 
her nose, she will be subject to anger ; if on 
her lips, she will be learned ; if on the eye- 
brows, she will be cunning. 

I could continue to fill a number of pages 
with things of the same description, but it will 
be unnecessary. I will merely mention one 
instance more. On a certain nis^ht in the 


month of November, the people will not look 
at the moon. The reason assigned for this, is 
as follows. Once, when the elephant-faced 
god Pulliar was dancing before the gods, the 
moon happening to see him, laughed at him, 
and told him that he had a large stomach, an 
ear like a winnowing-fan, etc. This so en- 
raged him, that he cursed her. This curse 
was inflicted on the night above mentioned. 

How does the wretchedness cf a people, both 
in reference to the things of this world and of 
the world to come, show itself where the Bible 
is unknown. If this blessed book was not an 
inspired book — if it did no more than remove 
the temporal miseries of men, how invaluable 
would it be ! Of how much more value then, 
is it, in reference to the removal of their spirit- 
ual miseries ? 

0, why is it that Christians have not long 
since sent this Bible to them ? Why is it that 
they do not send it to them now ? This is a 
mystery, which we must leave to be unravelled 
at the judgment-seat of the last day. My dear 
children, you are to stand before that judgment- 
seat. Shall any of these heathen among whom 
I dwell, rise up at that awful season — stretch 


out their hands towards you, and say, There 
stand the children wlio might have sent us the 
Bible, but they did not send it ; and now we 
must be lost — lost for ever! 


burmXh, china, etc., etc. 

My dear Children — If you will look on your 
map of Asia, you will see, adjoining Hindostan, 
at the east, a country called Burmah. This is 
another land of idols. Here the " Baptist Gen- 
eral Convention for Foreign Missions" have one 
of the most interesting and flourishing missions 
in the world. The people of Burmah are, if 
possible, still further removed from divine 
knowledge than the people of India. They 
are in reality atheists, or, in other words, 
people who do not believe in a creator or pre- 
server of the world. But still they worship 
gods, who, they say, have become so by acts of 
religious merit. He whom they now worship 
is called Gaudama, or Boodh. He is reputed 
to be the son of the king of Benares, and, if 
their history be correct, was born six hundred 


years before Christ. The Boodhists are all 
idolaters. They have many temples erected to 
the honor of Boodh and his image. Before this 
image they present flowers, incense, rice, betel- 
nuts, etc. Like all other idolatrous nations, 
the Burmese are very wicked. They do not 
respect their females as they should do. They 
treat them as an inferior order of beings. They 
often sell them. 

A very singular custom prevails in that 
country. It consists in paying a kind of hom- 
age to a white elephant. This elephant is 
sumptuously dressed and fed. It is provided 
with officers, like a second sovereign, and is 
made to receive presents from foreign ambassa- 
dors. It is next in rank to the king, and supe- 
rior to the queen. 

Burmah is the country in which Drs. Judson 
and Price, and Messrs. Hough and Wade suf- 
fered so much, during the war with England 
several years ago. Messrs. Hough and Wade 
were the first to suffer. As the ships which 
were to make the attack upon Rangoon ap- 
proached the city, they were seized and cast 
into prison. Their legs were bound together 
with ropes, and eight or ten Burmans, armed 

BURMAH. 167 

with spears and battle-axes, were placed over 
them as a guard. They were afterwards put 
in irons. The next morning, as the fleet ap- 
proached still nearer the city, orders were sent 
to the guard, through the grates of their prison, 
that the instant the shipping should fire upon 
the town, they were to kill them, together with 
the other prisoners confined with them. The 
guard, on receiving these orders, began to 
sharpen the instruments with which they in- 
tended to kill them, and moved them about 
their heads to show with how much skill and 
pleasure they would attend to their orders. 
Upon the floor where they intended to butcher 
them, a large quantity of sand was spread to 
receive the blood. The gloom and silence of 
death reigned among the prisoners ; the vast 
ocean of eternity seemed but a step before them. 
At length the fleet arrived, and the firing com- 
menced. The first ball which was thrown into 
the town passed, with a tremendous noise, di- 
rectly over their heads. This so frightened the 
guard, that they seemed unable to execute 
their murderous orders. They shrunk away 
into one corner of the prison, where they re- 
mained quiet, until a broadside from one of the 


ships made the prison shake and tremble to its 
very foundation. This so alarmed them, that 
they burst open the doors of the prison and fled. 
The missionaries, with the other prisoners, were 
then left alone. Their danger, however, was 
not at an end ; but as Grod had protected them 
thus far, he continued to protect them until 
they were set at liberty, and allowed to preach 
the Gospel again to those perishing heathen. 
Drs. Judson and Price were also imprisoned, 
and suffered much ; but they, too, were preserv- 
ed and delivered. The accounts of their suf- 
ferings are so long, that I cannot now relate 
them all to you. You will find them in the life 
of Mrs. Judson. 

After the war was over, the missionaries 
were permitted to go everywhere to proclaim 
the name of the Saviour ; and their efforts have 
been very much blessed, especially among the 
Karens. It will be impossible for me to give 
you an account of their many labors, and of the 
many tokens which they have received of God's 
favor towards multitudes who have become 
followers of the Redeemer. Suffice it to say, 
that more than six thousand have been received 
into tlie Christian church. One of the native 

riii.NA. 169 

teachers not long since baptized, on one occa- 
sion, three hundred and seventy-two persons. 

Adjoining Burmah, is China, a country con- 
taining more than three hundred millions of 
people, about twenty times as many as there 
are in the United States of America. It is a 
country filled with idols. Many of the people 
earn their living by making and selling these 
idols. There are many shops where they are 
sold, or repaired when they become broken or 

The females in that country are in a very 
degraded state. They are the slaves of their 
husbands, and live and die in the greatest igno- 
rance. Any attempt to raise themselves to the 
level of females in Christian lands, is consid- 
ered as very wicked. The little female child 
is tortured from her birth. You have, per- 
haps, heard that the women of China have 
small feet. These are made small by a very 
cruel practice — by putting bandages of cloth 
so tightly around them, that they cannot grow. 
Many women have feet not larger tlian those 
of an American infant of one year old. Mr. 
Doty, missionary to China, says, that he was 
acquainted with a little girl whose mother 


had bound up her feet so tightly, that she cried 
two or three hours every day, on account of 
the great pain which she suffered. 

With such little feet, you may well suppose 
that it would be very difficult for the women 
to walk. It is so. They limp and hobble 
along, just as if their feet had been cut off, and 
they had to walk on stumps. 

The Chinese do not count their daughters 
among their children. Mr. Doty says, he one 
day asked his Chinese teacher how many chil- 
dren he had. He replied, that he had several. 
'^How many of these," he then inquired, " are 
daughters ?" '• We do not count our daughters 
among our children," he answered. " I have 
three daughters, but we Chinese count our 
sons only as children." 

When this missionary was in a Chinese vil- 
lage, where he had never been before, a man 
called to see him, bringing with him two pretty 
little girls, neatly dressed, about six and seven 
years old. He said that they were his daugh- 
ters, and that he wished to sell them. Mr. Doty 
refused to buy them, as it was wicked to buy 
and sell children ; but he told him, that if he 
would commit them to him, he would take 


them home witli him, and educate them, and 
that they might return home after they had 
grown. To this proposal he would not con- 
sent; but said, that if he would buy them, they 
should be his for ever. He could have bought 
tlicm both for about twenty-six dollars. 

The Chinese -have many schools, but none 
for their daughters, as they do not teach them 
to read. When they are about thirteen years 
old, they shut them up in what are called 
"women's apartments," where they remain 
until the time of their marriage. Then the 
parents sell them to those who wish to have 
wives for their sons. In this way, they are 
frequently married to persons whom they never 
before saw. 

Many parents in China destroy their little 
girls soon after they are born, or while they are 
very small. This they frequently do by throw- 
incr them into rivers, or into the sea, after they 
have wrapped them up in coarse mats. Tliere 
is a little Chinese girl, named Ellen, now living 
in Newark, New Jersey, whose father was 
about to kill her when she was three weeks 
old. An English lady heard of his intentions, 
and sent a person with ten dollars to see if she 


could not be bought. He was offered the ten 
dollars, but refused to take them. She sent 
ten dollars more. He consented to take the 
twenty dollars. This little girl was brought 
by this English lady to America, when she was 
about six years old. The friends who have her 
under their care, are educating her with the 
hope that she may go back to China, to tell its 
females of the Saviour. 

Did you ever, my dear girls, think why it is 
that your parents love you, and educate you — 
why it is that they try to make you happy, 
instead of cramping your feet, shutting you up, 
and, perhaps, at last selling you ? It is because 
they have the Bible. Then, how anxious should 
you be to save what money you can, to buy 
Bibles to send to those poor heathen. 

As I am now speaking of the destruction of 
infants, I would observe, that this crime is com- 
mon in other heathen countries. It was quite 
common, until lately, in the island of Tahiti, 
and other places in the South Pacific Ocean. 
When the missionaries of the London Mission- 
ary Society went there, many years ago, they 
found the females in a very degraded situation. 
Mr. Nott, one of these missionaries, declared tha t 


three out of four of the children were murdered 
as soon as they were born. He met a woman 
soon after this dreadful crime had been abol- 
ished, to whom he said, " How many children 
have you ?" " This one in my arms," was 
her answer. "And how many did you kill?" 
She replied, " Eight." Another woman, who 
was asked the same question, said that she had 
destroyed seventeen. Infanticide, or, in other 
words, the destruction of infants, says the Rev. 
Mr. AVilliams, was carried to an almost incred- 
ible extent in Tahiti, and some other islands. 
He writes, " During the visit of the deputation, 
G. Bennet, Esq., was our guest for three or 
four days ; and on one occasion, while con- 
versing on this subject, he expressed a wish to 
obtain accurate knowleds^e of the extent to 
which this cruel practice had prevailed. Threo 
women were sitting in the room at the time, 
making European garments, under Mrs. Will- 
iams' direction ; and, after replying to Mr. 
Bennet's inquiries, I said, ' I have no doubt but 
that each of these women has destroyed some 
of her children.' Mr. Bennet exclaimed, ' Im- 
possible ; such motherly, respectable women 
could never have been guilty of so great an 


atrocity.' ' Well,' I added, ' we will ask them.' 
Addressing the first, I said to her, ' Friend, how 
many children have you destroyed ?' She was 
startled at my question, and at first charged 
me with unkindness, in harrowing up her feel- 
ings, by bringing the destruction of her babes 
to her remembrance ; but upon learning the 
object of my inquiry, she replied, with a falter- 
ing voice, ' I have destroyed nine.'' The second, 
with eyes suffused with tears, said, ' I have 
destroyed seven;'' and the third informed us 
that she had destroyed five. Had the mission- 
aries gone there but a few years before, with 
the blessing of God, they would have prevented 
all this. These mothers were all Christians at 
the time this conversation was held." 

" On another occasion," says Mr. Williams, 
^' I was called to visit the wife of a chief in 
dying circumstances. She had professed Chris- 
tianity for many years, had learned to read 
when about sixty, and was a very active teacher 
in our adult school. In the prospect of death, 
she sent a pressing request that I would visit 
her immediately ; and on my entering her apart- 
ment, she exclaimed, ' 0, servant of God, come 
and tell me what I must do.' Perceiving that 


she suffered great mental distress, I inquired 
the cause of it, when she replied, ' I am about 
to die.' ' Well,' I rejoined, ' if it be so, wliat 
creates this agony of mind ?' ' 0, my sins, my 
sins,' she cried; 'I am about to die.' I then 
inquired what the particular sins were which 
so greatly distressed her, when she exclaimed, 
' 0, my children, my murdered children ! I 
am about to die, and shall meet them all at the 
judgment-seat of Christ.' Upon this I inquired 
how many children she had destroyed, and to 
my astonishment she replied, ' I have destroyed 
sixteen^ and now I am about to die.' " After 
this Mr. AYilliams tried to comfort her, by tell- 
ing her that she had done this when a heathen, 
and during the times of ignorance, which God 
winked at. But she received no consolation 
from this thought, and exclaimed again, " 0, 
my children, my children." He then directed 
her to the ''faithful saying, which is worthy of 
all acceptation, that Jesus Christ came into the 
world to save sinners." This gave her a little 
comfort; and after visiting her frequently, and 
directing her to that blood which cleanseth from 
all sin, he succeeded, with the blessing of God, 
in bringing peace to her mind. She died soon 


after, rejoicing in the hope that her sins, though 
many, \Yould be forgiven her. Well may you 
exclaim, my dear children, 

''" Holy Bible, book divine, 
Precious treasure, thou art mine." 

Infanticide still prevails in India, but as i 
have given a particular description of this 
crime in my Sermon to Children, on the Con- 
dition of the Heathen, T will here say nothing 
farther on the subject. 



My dear Children — There is another story 
connected v^^ith India, which I might have men- 
tioned in my last chapter while writing about 
the destrLiction of infants. I will relate it now, 
in order that you may be constrained to pray 
more frequently for the heathen. Some time 
ago, the wife of a native prince had a little 
daughter. The father ordered it to be put to 

S P R i: A D O F THE (; O S 1' E L. ] 77 

death, immediately after it was born. Had it 
been a son. an heir to tlie throne, he would 
have taken great care of it. A second, a third, 
a fourth, a fifth little daughter was born. All 
these were also put to death by the command 
of the father. When a sixth little daughter 
was born, the mother's heart yearned over it. 
" I cannot part with it," said she; " I will have 
it taken away and hid, so that the king may 
know nothing about it." This was done, but 
the poor mother never dared to send for her little 
girl. She never saw her again, but died some- 
time after. 

Many of the little girls in India are very 
pretty. They have. dark eyes, and sweet, ex- 
pressive countenances. This little child grew 
to be a very beautiful girl ; and when she was 
eleven years old, some of her relations ventur- 
ed to bring her to her father. They thought 
that he would be struck with the sight of his 
sweet child, and that he would love her for the 
sake of her mother who had died. The little 
girl fell at his feet and clasped his knees, and 
looked up in liis face and said, " My lather." 
And what do you think that father did? Do 
you think that he took her up in his arms, and 

S.Mirtder'j T:.les. ] 2 


kissed her? No. He seized her by the hair 
of her head, drew his sword from his belt, and 
with a single blow took off her head. 

Now, my dear children, do you not think 
that you ought to pray for the poor heathen — 
to pray that God will send the Gospel to them ? 
I want to tell you of a little boy who heard me 
preach some time ago about the heathen. One 
night he said his prayers, and went to bed. 
After he got into bed, he said to the nurse, "I 
have forgotten to pray for the heathen, and I 
must get out of bed and pray for them." The 
nurse then told him that it would not be neces- 
sary for him "to get up, as he could pray for them 
while in bed. " No," said he, " I must get 
out of bed and pray for them." And the dear 
little boy would not rest until he got out of bed 
and prayed for them. Now I want all of you, 
my dear children, every morning and evening, 
to kneel down and pray for the heathen, as this 
little boy did. And I want you to do some- 
thing more. I want you always to be punctual 
in attending the usual monthly concerts of 
prayer, provided there are no juvenile monthly 
concerts to which you can go. I have long 
wished to see juvenile monthly concerts of 


prayer established. They would be very inter- 
esting, if I am to judge from the account of 
one which I some time ago received from a 

friend of mine, the Rev. Mr. V . I will 

give you some extracts from his letter. He 
writes, " According to promise, I send you an 
account of the first children's monthly concert, 
so far as I can learn, held on Long Island. 
As notice was not given either in the church 
or Sabbath-school, the attendance was smaller 
than it otherwise would have been. Still, about 
sixty interesting children attended. After a 
few remarks concerning tlie object of the meet- 
ing, by the superintendent of the Sabbath- 
school, they sung with melting eyes the hymn 
that describes the wretched heathen mother 
casting her lovely babe into the jaws of the 
monster of the Ganges. Prayer then was made, 
of about two or three minutes in len2i;h. Then 
I gave some of the most affecting accounts of 
the cruelties and ignorance of the heathen, as 
related by the devoted Williams, that martyr 
missionary. Their silent attention and sub- 
dued countenances told that their hearts were 
with the wretched idolaters. After having thus 
spent about ten minutes, the children sung in 


a sweet manner, a hymn — a prayer for those 
laboring: amid the heathen : 

" When worn by toil, their spirits fail, 
Bid them the glorious future hail ; 
Bid them the crown of life survey, 
And onward urge their conquering way." 

"After which, two resolutions were passed, 
unanimously, by the children. First, that they 
will each one attend the monthly concert of 
prayer regularly, when able, and bring with 
them all their companions whom they can per- 
suade to come. 

'' Secondly, that they, with the children of 

the various schools of W , will constitute 

a life member of the W Bible Society. 

Some of the smaller children had brought their 

little Bibles to give them to , that he might 

carry them to the poor children of the heathen. 
But when informed that the heathen could not 
understand English, they determined to raise 
money, and send it out to purchase Bibles for the 
children. This interesting meeting was closed 
by prayer, the doxology, and benediction." 

But not only can you pray for the heathen, 
you can give something to send the Gospel to 
them. Do you say that you have no money to 


give? But cannot you earn some? Many 
young persons have done so. One of whom I 
have read, says, *' Besides supporting a school 
in Ceylon, we are going to support five Chinese 
boys. I earn six cents a week for not using 
tea, one for not using sugar, and three for not 
using coffee." 

Another says, " I, with three others, have 
been making matches to the amount of ten 
dollars, and should have made more, but the 
people are pretty well supplied. I am going to 
dig my father's garden, and my mother is going 
to give me a quarter of a dollar for digging it, 
which I shall give to the missionaries. I am 
croin^y to do all I can, and to earn all I can, 
and save all that I have, to support the mis- 

Another says, " I am going to leave off buy- 
ing candy." What is that? Can little girls 
and boys do without sugar-candy ? 1 am afraid 
that many of you, my dear children, would find 
it difficult to go without it. But let me quote 
all that this child wrote. " I am going to leave 
off buying candy and such little notions, unless 
it is necessary, and save every cent that 1 can 
set and orive it to the missionaries." 



Now, my dear children, I do think that if 
you would save some of those cents which you 
spend in buying candy, fire-crackers, and sim- 
ilar things, and buy Bibles and tracts for the 
poor heathen, you would do much more good 
with them. 

I want to tell you about a little boy who 
belonged to one of my schools in Ceylon, who 
has, as I hope, gone to heaven through the 
means of a tract which cost only two or three 
cents, and which was the cause of his coming 
under my care. After he had attended preach- 
ing for some time, he begged me to admit him 
to the church. As he was quite young, not 
eleven years old, I was afraid to receive him. 
This feeling, perhaps, was wrong. He never 
joined the church on earth. He has, however, 
I hope, gone to join the church in heaven. 
When he was about eleven years of age, he was 
attacked with the cholera and died. In this 
country, when children are very ill, the father 
or mother will catch up a cocoa-nut or a few 
plantains, and run off to the temple, and say, 
*' Now, Swammie, if you will cure my little boy 
or little girl, I will give you this cocoa-nut, or 
these plantains." The mother of this boy saw 


that he was very ill, and she told him that she 
wished to go to make oflerings to one of her 
idols, in order that he might get well. But he 
requested her not to do so. "I do not worship 
idols," said he ; '' I worship Christ, my Saviour. 
If he is pleased to spare me a little longer in 
the world, it will be well ; if not, I shall go to 
him." The last words he uttered were, " I am 
going to Christ the Lord." 

Now when you think about this little boy, 
I want you to ask yourselves, whether it is not 
better to give two or three cents to try and save 
the soul of some poor little heathen boy or girl, 
than to spend them in buying candy, and other 
useless things. 

But I must tell you about a little girl whom 
I saw some time ago, who refused to buy candy 
while there are so many heathen without the 
Bible. Her father is a sea-captain. Being ab- 
sent from home, he sent her five dollars to buy 
candy, or any thing else which she wished. As 
this little girl had heard about the heathen, she 
determined to throw all her money into the mis- 
sionary-box, instead of spending it for her own 
pleasure. The mother, on learning her inten- 
tions, asked her if she would not like to spend 

184 TALES AHOU'I THE li E J. P H E N . 

a part of it for candy, and similar things. She 
replied, that she would not, and in due time she 
put her five dollars into the missionary-box. 
Not long after this, she was attacked with a 
severe toothache. The mother proposed that 
the defective tooth should be extracted. The 
little creature, for she was only about eight 
years old, dreaded the operation, and seemed 
at first to be backward about having it per- 
formed. To encourage her to submit to it, her 
mother offered her twenty-five cents. This 
little girl did not then begin to reason. Now, if 
I can only get those twenty-five cents, I can 
buy a doll, or I can buy some sugar-candy ; 
but she reasoned thus. Now, if I can get those 
twenty-five cents, I can go and put them into 
the missionary-box. So she said to her mother, 
I will go and have the tooth taken out. The 
tooth, however, ceased to ache, but still she 
wished to have it extracted. Her mother then 
interfered, and told her that, as it had ceased to 
ache, it might be well for her not to have it 
drawn until it ached again. The little girl, 
however, persisted, saying, that if it v^^ere not 
taken out, she could not get the twenty-five 
cents to devote to the missionarv cause. She 


therefore went to the dentist's, submitted to 
the operation, received her twenty-five cents, 
and went and threw them into the Lord's treas- 
ury. Was not that a noble little girl ? Doubt- 
less you will all say she was. 

I must tell you about a noble little boy also. 
Some time ago, I was preaching to the children 
of Canandaigua, in the western part of New 
York. After I had preached there, I went on 
to Rochester. Returning from that place, T 
met with a lady in the cars, who told me as 
follows: "After you had preached in Canan- 
daigua," said she, " a young lady there, who 
had lost her mother, and who had six or seven 
or eight of her brothers and sisters under her 
care, formed them into a missionary society." 
Oh, I wish that all the dear children in America 
were formed into missionary societies. After 
she had done this, she asked her little brother 
how he was going to get money to put into the 
missionary-box. " By catching mice," said he. 
His sister gave him two or three cents for every 
mouse he caught. Thus it appears, that this 
dear little boy was going to throw all his earn- 
ings into the Lord's treasury. 

But let me toll v->n a little more about the 


children to whom I before alluded. Another 
says, '' In some of the day-schools of this city, 
the girls have formed sewing societies, and 
make pin-cushions, needle-books, emery-bags, 
and the like, and send the money that is raised 
from the sale of them to the missionaries, to 
be used for the heathen. There are seven Sab- 
bath-schools in this town, and in each of them 
there is a missionary association ; so that in all 
about five hundred dollars are sent from the 
Sabbath-schools every year." 

Now, my dear girls, I want you to think of 
what has now been said about the formation of 
sewing societies ; and I want you to ask your 
mothers whether they will not allow you to 
form such societies, to meet once a week, or 
once in two weeks, or once a month to sew, to 
get some money to send the Gospel to the hea- 
then. Many societies of this kind have been 
formed. After I had preached to the children 
in one of the churches in Third-street, New 
York, the little girls who attend that church 
formed such a society. The account which I 
received of it is as follows. '' You may remem- 
ber, that in your address to our Sabbath-school, 
you related instances of little girls knitting, 


sewing, etc., to earn something for the mis- 
sionary-box. The examples which you related 
were not lost to the girls of the Sabbath-school. 
Immediately they began to talk about forming 
themselves into a sewing society, and making 
small articles, and giving the proceeds to the 
iTiissionary society. They did not stop here, 
but went right to work, and soon formed their 
society, which they styled the Juvenile Sewing 
Society. They are in a very prosperous and 
flourishing condition at present. I know not 
the amount of funds they possess — they pay a 
cent a week into their treasury — but they have 
a large assortment of articles already made. 
I understand, also, they meet once a week to 

After I had preached at a place called Little 
Falls, New York, the girls formed a sewing so- 
ciety there. The following account of this so- 
ciety, I received from one of its little members. 
" When you were here last fall, and told us 
how much good little girls had done in having 
sewing societies, we thought we would see if 
we could not do some good in the world, as well 
as they ; and, since October, we have met 
weekJv. and by holdinsr a fair, we liave sue- 


ceeded in raising sixty-two dollars. We hope 
it will be the mems of saving some poor hea- 
then children." 

Now, as I said before, I want you, my dear 
girls, to ask your mothers if you may not form 
such societies also. Will you think of it ? I 
hope you will. 

Another of the children to whom I have twice 
referred, says, " I can try and save their souls, if 
I am not there. I can work for them, and send 
some money to you to buy them Bibles, and I 
can pray for them ; and if I should save some 
souls, how would they thank me. But if I 
did not send my money, nor care any thing 
about them, and I should not go to heaven, and 
they should not, how would they rise up in 
judgment against me, and say. If we had had 
the privileges that you had, we should not be 
here. 0, how thankful we ought to be, that 
we Avere not born in heathen lands. 0, if the 
poor heathen could only have such privileges as 
we have, how thankful would they be ; and if 
we were born in heathen lands, I have no doubt 
that they would come and tell us about a 

T have received many letters from children, 


breathing the same spirit which is manifested 
in the notes I have copied. 

One writes, " Last winter I brought in the 
wood for mother, and she gave me fifty cents. 
I now am very glad that I have not spent it, 
as I can give it to you to buy tracts for the 
little heathen children of India." 

A second writes, " The enclosed fifty cents 
my grandmother gave me when I was a very 
little boy, for sitting still one hour. Will you 
please to use it to furnish the Bible and mis- 
sionary to the heathen." 

A third writes, " I have always spent my 
money for candy and otlier trifles, but since I 
have heard about the darkness and misery of 
the heathen, I intend to save it all, and put it 
into the missionary-box." 

A fourth writes, " The enclosed I earned by 
knitting. I intended to save it, till I had suf- 
ficient to carry me a short journey to see some 
of my friends ; but when I heard you tell about 
the little heathen girls, I thought I woulil give 
it to you, for the poor heathen children." 

A fifth writes, " I have enclosed twelve and 
a half cents, which my father gave me to go 
and see General Tom Thumb. AVhcn I heard 


you lecture last evening, I came home and con- 
cluded to give it to you, and let you buy Bibles 
for the poor heathen." 

A sixth writes, " I remember, before my 
mother died, she used to tell me a great deal 
about the children of India, and now she is in 
heaven. I think she would like to have me 
give my heart to the Saviour, and go and teach 
those poor children. I give you some money 
that was given to me to see an exhibition, 
which I saved to give for such things, rather 
than go." 

A seventh writes, "You told us that two 
cents were the means of converting a young 
man. I would give two cents every week, if 
it would convert souls to Christ." 

An eighth writes, " My mother told me, some 
time ago, that every day I recited my lessons 
without missing a word, she would give me a 
penny ; and not being desirous to spend it, I do 
wish you would take it — fifty cents — to the 
heathen. It may buy some tracts at the bazaar 
or market." 

A ninth writes, " We feel sorry for those 
poor heathen children. We will try to earn 
some money to buy Bibles for the heathen 


Father has promised us some land to work next 
summer, and we think we can raise something 
and' sell it to get the money." 

A tenth writes, *' Since you were here last 
spring, I have saved what I could — one dollar — 
for the heathen children, and sliould be glad if 
I could do more." 

An eleventh writes, " The money which you 
will find enclosed, I earned by working for my 
mother on Saturday, which I intended to keep 
to buy a microscope ; but when I heard you 
preach on Sabbath, I concluded to give it to 
buy Bibles for the poor heathen children." 

A twelfth writes, " The enclosed, five dollars, 
was a birtliday present from my father, but 
I want to give it to Dr. Scudder, for the poor 
little boys in Ceylon." 

A thirteenth writes, " Please accept my mite, 
by the hand of my brother. I have been keep- 
ing it for the purpose of buying a geography ; 
but when I heard you preach yesterday, I 
thought I had better send it to you, for the poor 

A fourteenth writes, "I would like much to 
become a missionary, as I am named after one ; 
I hope I shall be one. I have been saving a 


dollar to buy myself some books, but concluded 
to give it to buy some books for the heathen." 
The last two children, whose letters you have 
been reading, gave to the missionary cause the 
money which they had been earning to buy 
books. When you have been earning money 
for the express purpose of giving it to the mis- 
sionary cause, then you should devote it all to 
that cause ; but I would advise you not to do 
as did the two children last mentioned. Had 
my opinion been asked, relative to the disposal 
of their money, I would have recommended 
them to give one-tenth, or perhaps a little 
more, of the sums they had been earning, to 
their Saviour, and to keep the rest to buy their 
books. The giving of not less than one-tenth 
of all you earn, for charitable purposes, is the 
principle which I wish to have impressed fully 
on your minds, and I hope you will grow up 
under the influence of this principle, and never, 
never depart from it. But while I thus speak, 
you must not suppose that I wish you to con- 
fine yourselves to the giving of one-tenth, when 
j^'ou can give more ; I hope you will not give 
merely tliis, but one-half, or more, if you can 
afford it. Indeed, if you do not go as mission- 


aries to tlie heathen, I want you to make it 
your great object to make money for Christy 
and to spend it for Christ. 0, if the genera- 
tion which is grown, were as anxious to make 
money for Christ, and to spend it for Christ, as 
they are to make it for themselves, and to spend 
it for themselves, or to hoard it up — it may be 
for the everlastinsf destruction of the souls of 
their heirs — there would be no complaints that 
money could not be had to send the Gospel to 
the destitute, both at home and abroad. 

In my twelfth cliapter, I spoke of the liberal 
donations which the heathen of India make for 
the support of their religion. In the city of 
Calcutta alone, it is supposed that two millions 
of dollars are spent every year on the festival 
of a single goddess — a festival which lasts only 
a few days. A single native has been known 
to give, as I before said, more than one hundred 
thousand dollars at one time to this festival, 
and afterwards thirty thousand dollars yearly. 
How vast, then, must be the sums which arc 
spent upon all the different festivals of their 
gods. Would that we could .see such liberality 
among Christians. Would that we could see 
the generality of thoni willing to give even one- 


tenth of their annual income to the Lord. Alas, 
what would the heathen say, if they were to 
learn how much greater are the sums of money 
which they give to their idols, than Christians 
give to honor their Saviour ? Would they not 
exclaim, It is because Christianity is false, and 
heathenism is true, that Christians give so little 
for Christ, while we give so much for our 
gods ? My dear children, I hope that you will 
never allow the heathen to say that the Chris- 
tian religion is false, because you do not give 
your money for the spread of the Gospel. Will 
you not resolve now, that you will, so long as 
God prospers you in worldly goods, give at 
least one-tenth of all you earn to the Lord ? 
Do, my dear children, do make the resolution 





My dear Children — You have, perhaps, often 
seen Campbell's missionary map of the world. 
If not, I want you very carefully to look at it. 
I want you to look at the red spots on it, and 
think how many millions of people embrace the 
religion both of the Greek and Roman Catholic 
churches — a religion which is nothing more 
nor less than paganism, with a few Christian 
doctrines added to it. After this, I want you 
to look at the green spots, and think of the 
hundred and twenty millions of Mohammedans, 
who spurn the name of Jesus as a Saviour, 
and who have set up Mahomet as their prophet. 
I want you also to look at all the dark spots, 
where, with comparatively a few exceptions, 
the people are in pagan darkness, without any 
knowledge of God and the only Saviour of sin- 
ners, Jesus Christ. And in view of all this 
darkness — in view of the need of more than half 
a million of ministers of the Gospel to preach 
the news of salvation to them, I want you, my 
dear boys, to ask yourselves whether it mny 


not be your duty, after you grow up,* to become 
ministers, and go and preach the Gospel to 
them. You know that you are bound to do 
all the good to others which you can ; and even 
if you do not love the Saviour, you are not 
released from your obligations to do good. I 
would by no means have you become ministers 
without giving your hearts to Christ; but this 
you are as much bound to do, as you are bound 
to do all the good you can to others. If you 
are not Christians, I want you, through grace, 
to become such, and I want many of you to 
become ministers and missionaries. Two of 
my sons are now missionaries in India, and four 
others, I hope, are preparing to come. And 
why should not you also come here, or go to 
other heathen lands ? If you can be excused 
from coming or going, why may not all Avho 
are now little boys also be excused ? In such 
a case, there will be no missionaries at all 
And you know that this would be very wrong 
But I do not merely want many of you, m}^ 
dear boys, to become missionaries, I want man} 
of you, my dear girls, to become missionaries 
also. Many little girls and boys have express- 
ed a desire to become missionaries. Several 


little boys who wrote to Mr. Hutchings, one of 
my missionary brethren, and several little boys 
and girls who have written to me, have said 
that tliey would like to be missionaries. 

One writes, " I should like to go and be a 
missionary, and instruct the poor heathen chil- 
dren to love God." 

A second says, " I have been selling matches 
that I made. I got five dollars — ^just as many 
dollars as I am years old. I think I shall be- 
come a missionary, and come and help you. I 
hope I shall see you again when I come to 
Ceylon. Tell the heathen children they must 
love God, and be good children. They must 
not give the children to the crocodiles, nor 
throw them into the water ; and they must not 
worship wooden and brass gods. They must 
worship the true God, and keep his command- 

A third says, " I like to send money to help 
the poor heathen to learn to read the Bible, 
and other good books. I think it will be pleas- 
ant to sail across the ocean, and teach them to 
turn from their idols. I would teach them not 
to lay themselves down before the car of Jug- 
gernaut, and be crushed to death ; and I would 


te^cli them not to burn themselves to death on 
the funeral pile." ' 

A fourth says, '' I mean to save something 
to send to you, to help support one school. 
Should my life be spared, and the way be open- 
ed at some future day, I think I should be will- 
ing to leave my native home, to go to some dis- 
tant land to tell the heathen of a Saviour, whom 
I hope I have found." 

A fifth says, " If you are ever in want of 
money, just please to send on to me, and I will 
endeavor to raise all that you want. If I live 
to be a man, I hope to be a missionary to Cey- 
lon or China." 

One little boy wrote to me as follows : "I 
have for a long time been saving three shillings, 
for the purpose of buying a little racoon, which 
I intended to do on Monday. On Sunday I 
heard you preach, and thought I would give it 
to you to save some poor heathen soul ; and I 
hope you will pray for me, that I may become 
a minister, and go to India, and preach to the 

Another writes, '' This is to certify that I, 
Charles D. H. Frederick, pledge myself, if God 
spares my life, when I get to be a man, and he 


pardons me through Christ Jesus, I will go and 
preach to the heathen." 

A little girl wrote me as follows : *' Accord- 
ing to my present feelings, I should like to en- 
gage in so glorious a cause," as the missionary 
cause, " and I hope, when I arrive at an age to 
be of use to God, and the poor heathen, to em- 
brace so glorious a cause." 

Another little girl writes, " I felt very bad 
when I heard you tell about the poor heathen 
who worship the idols. I could not keep from 
weeping, when you told us about ftie man who 
came so far to get a teacher to come and tell 
the Gospel to his friends, and was disappointed. 
I felt very bad Sunday evening ; and on Mon- 
day evening I felt that the Lord had given me 
a new heart. I felt happy, and sang some 
beautiful verses that I learned in one of moth- 
er's little books. I have read the Day-springs, 
and thought a great deal about the heathen for 
two years. 

'' I used to think a s^reat deal about bavins: 
nice clothes, before I thought so much about 
the heathen. My mother told me some time 
ago, that she thought she would get me a white 
dress when I was ten years old. I am now 


ten years old, and this evening mother gave 
me two dollars to get the dress, or dispose of 
it in any way I thought best ; and I wish you 
would take it to have the poor heathen taught 
about the Saviour. If I live, and it is the 
Lord's will, I hope I shall come and help you 
teach the poor heathen about the Saviour." 

There is a little boy in the city of New 
York, who formerly used to tell his mother, 
that he meant to be a cab-driver, an^ all she 
could say to him was of no avail in making 
him think differently. This little boy came 
with his mother to hear me preach about the 

After he had left the church, as he was go- 
ing home, he burst into tears, and exclaimed, 
'' Mother, I mean to be a missionary to the 
heathen;" and so far as I know, he has never 
talked about being any thing else since. And 
I hope that many of you will never talk about 
being any thing else than missionaries to the 

I am acquainted with a little girl in Ohio, 
who has resolved to become a missionary. She 
is a niece of Mr. Campbell, late missionary to 
Africa. She was not quite four years old Avhen 


I saw her. AVhen she was eighteen months of 
age, she saw the picture of a heathen mother 
throwing her child into the mouth of a croco- 
dile. She was deeply impressed with the sight. 
When she was two and a half years old, she 
resolved to be a miissionary, and follow her 
uncle to Africa. From this resolution she has 
never drawn back. When I was at her fa- 
ther's house, she was asked if she would not go 
to India. She replied, that she would not go 
to India, but to Africa. She was asked why 
she wished to go to Africa. " To teach the 
heathen," was her answer. "Wliy should you 
teach the heathen ?" " Because they worship 
idols." Her mother told me, that ever since 
she began to get money, she has contributed to 
the missionary cause ; and this money has 
generally, if not always, been earned by some 
act of self-denial on her part. I hope that 
many of you will feel just as tliis little girl 
felt, and do just as she did. 

When I was in America, I used continually, 
when preaching, to ask the dear children 
whether they would not become missionaries. 
I used also to beg them to write down what I 
had asked them. Many comj)lie(l with my re- 


rjuest. "While I was at the Avon Springs, one 
of the daughters of a physician there, not only 
wrote it down, but gave me what she had 
written. The following is a copy of what she 

Qy^nc/t^ ^o ne/^i. ^1^771 wnen Q^ a77t ntota7Z. 

Could I raise ray voice loud enough to reach 
America, I would beg of you to write down 
the following sentence : Dr. Scudder asks me, 
to-day, whether I will not hereafter become a 
missionary to the heathen. Perhaps you will 
write it down immediately. 

Now, my dear boys, if you will come out to 
India, or go to Burmah or China, to tell the 
heathen of the Saviour, you may, with the 
blessing of God, do as much good as Swartz 
and Carey, and others have done. And if you, 
my dear girls, will do the same, you also may 
do much good. This will appear from what I 


am going to tell you about a little girl in Cey- 
lon. This little girl belonged to the board- 
ing-school at Oodooville. She early gave her 
heart to the Saviour, and joined the church 
when she was thirteen years old. I should 
like to know if there are any of you who have 
not followed her example. If so, this is not 
right. My dear children, it is not right. Shall 
this little girl, in a heathen land, a land filled 
with idols, give her heart to Christ; and you, 
in a Christian land, a land of Sabbaths, and 
Sabbath-schools, and Bibles, not give your 
hearts to him? This is not right. You know 
that it is not right. 

But let me go on with my account of the 
little girl. After she had joined the church, 
she wanted to go and see her mother, who was 
a heathen, for the purpose of conversing with 
her about her soul's concerns. Now, in this 
country, when children who have been absent 
from their parents for any length of time go 
home, the mother spreads a mat down on the 
floor, and tells them to sit down upon it, add- 
ing, that she will go and cook rice for them. 
They have no seats to sit on, as you have in 
America. AYell, this little girl went home. 


When her mother saw her, she was very glad ; 
and after she had spread a ixiat for her, and 
told her to sit down, she said that she would 
go and cook rice for her. The little girl told 
her that she was not hungry, and did not wish 
to eat, but wanted to talk with her. '' Yon 
cannot talk with me," said her mother, " un- 
til I have cooked rice for you." " Mother," 
said the little girl, "you worship idols, and I 
am afraid that you will lose your soul, and I 
want to talk with you about Jesus Christ." 
The mother became quite angry with her, and 
rebuked her. But still the little girl continued 
to talk with her about her soul. The mother 
then became so angry, that she told her to be 
silent, or she would punish her. The little 
girl replied, " Mother, though you do whip me, 
I must talk to you about Jesus Christ," and 
she burst into tears. The mother's heart was 
broken. She sat down on the mat, and her 
little daughter talked with her, and prayed 
with her. After this the little girl was so 
trojibled, fearing that her mother's soul might 
be lost, that she was heard praying for her 
during all parts of the night. And God heard 
her prayers. Her mother forsook her idols, 


and became a Christian, and her conversion 
was followed by the conversion of one or two 
others. Now, my dear little girls, if you will 
give your hearts to the Saviour, and in due 
time come here, or go to other heathen lands, 
and tell the people of a Saviour, you may, with 
the help of the Holy Spirit, be as useful as 
this little girl was. 

Female missionaries have done much erood 
among the heathen. I mentioned an instance 
on page 88, to prove this. Let me mention 
another instance more. 

In the year 1838, an Englisli lady. Miss 
Aldersey, went to the East, at her own ex- 
pense, to promote female education among the 
Chinese. At that time, she could not go to 
China, as that country was not open to mis- 
sionaries. She therefore went to Java, where 
there was a colony of Chinese. Here she hired 
a house, and collected about twenty-five girls, 
whom she clothed, and boarded, and taught. 
The Lord blessed her labors, and several of 
these girls were hopefully converted. AYhen 
their parents saw that they would no longer 
worship idols, they became much opposed to 
the school, and some of them took their daugh- 


ters from it. In the year 1842, God opened 
the door for the entrance of the Gospel into 
China. This missionary then broke up her 
«chool in Java, went to that country, and re- 
sided in the city of Ningpo. Of the girls who 
had become Christians while under her care, 
two were much persecuted by their parents. 
They were whipped and beaten, with the hope 
that they would again return to their idols ; 
but all the efforts which were made to induce 
them to forsake the Saviour were in vain. 
They declared that they would sooner die than 
forsake him. When their parents saw that 
stripes and blows were of no avail, they deter- 
mined to marry them to men who were much 
devoted to their idols. This stratagem, they 
thought, might succeed in destroying all their 
interest in their new religion. Here, however, 
they were again foiled. The girls became 
alarmed, and fled from their parents. An 
English gentleman, but who was not a pro- 
fessor of religion, felt deeply interested for 
them, and assisted them to get on board a 
ship going to Batavia. Here they were pur- 
sued, but escaped from the pursuers by going 
on board of a ship which sailed for Singapore. 


From Singapore they sailed for China, where 
they were permitted to join the old friend who 
had been the means of their conversion. Tliis 
lady collected a school at Ningpo of more than 
tliirty girls. Thus you see how much good 
female missionaries have done by going to hea- 
then lands. And are none of you willino- to 
follow their example ? Are none of you will- 
ing to say, Here am I, Lord, send me*? 



My dhar Children — I have told you that 
India is a very dark land, but there are a few 
bright spots in it. Throu2:h the blessino- of 
God upon the prayers of his people in Christian 
lands, and upon the^:)rayers and labors of his 
missionary servants, many of the heathen of 
India and Ceylon have forsaken their idols, and 
are now enlisted under the banner of Jehovah 
Jesus. In the Travancore and Tinnivelly dis- 
tricts, to say nothing of the success of the Gos- 
pel in other places, thousands and tens of thou- 
sands of the people have embraced Cliristianity. 


In hundreds of villages where but a few years 
ago the name of Jesus had never been heard, 
it is now known and adored. 

You have often heard of Ceylon. If you 
will look at the map of Hindostan, you will 
find it close to that country. Here Christian- 
ity has begun to prevail. This island is two 
hundred miles long, and in some places quite 
wide. A large part of it is covered with what 
is called jungle. Jungle and wilderness mean 
' the same thing. In this jungle there are many 
wild beasts, such as elephants, bears, wild 
hogs, and buffaloes. In it also, there are men, 
women, and children, running wild, just like 
the wild beasts. This people are called Ver- 
ders, or wild people. They wear scarcely any 
clothing. They have no houses. When it 
rains, they creep into holes, or go under ovej- 
hansfino; rocks. Their beds consist of a few 
leaves. Sunk almost to the level of the brute, 
they live and die like their shaggy companions 
of the forest. Even upon these the Gospel 
has tried its power. More than fifty families 
have settled down, forming two pleasant, and 
now Christian villages. They have school- 
masters and Christian teachers. 


I must give you a description of two revi- 
vals of religion which occurred while I was in 
the island of Ceylon, in the year 1833. Before 
those revivals took place, there was no partic- 
ular manifestation of much seriousness at any 
uf our stations. It was in the month of Octo- 
ber of that year, that we began to feel that we 
must labor more, and pray more for the con- 
version of perishing souls. A protracted meet- 
ing was spoken of, and it was determined that 
one should be held at our seminary in Batti, 
cotta — a seminary which was established for 
the purpose of raising up a native ministry. 
On the morning of the day in which the meet- 
ing was commenced, Mr. Spaulding and myself 
went to that station to assist Mr. Poor, the 
principal of the seminary, in laboring with the 
students. In these labors we spent five days. 
It was good to be there. No sooner had we 
begun our exercises, than a blessing from on 
high was experienced. The windows of heaven 
were opened, and the Holy Ghost descended. 
This was evident from the spirit of prayer 
wliich was poured out upon the pious students 
of the seminary. They were lieard " a great 
wiiile before day'' pleading, in their social cir- 


cles, that God would have mercy upon their 
impenitent companions, and bring them into 
the kingdom of his grace. We trust, also, that 
a spirit of prayer was given to those of us who 
took a prominent part in the meeting. At the 
termination of our exercises, with the excep- 
tion of a few lads belonging to a Tamul class, 
who had lately been admitted to the seminary, 
there was not, so far as I know, an individual 
connected with it, who was not humbled at 
the foot of the cross, either to lie there until 
healed of his wounds, or to show, if he perished, 
that he must perish under circumstances of a 
very aggravated nature. 

After we had finished our meeting at Batti- 
cotta, we went to the female seminary at 
Oodooville, to hold similar meetings. Before 
we reached that station, the church-members 
there, after having heard what Grod was doing 
at Batticotta, became very much aroused to 
pray for the influences of the Holy Spirit to 
descend upon the impenitent in their seminary 
also. Soon after we reached the station, we 
'held a meeting with the girls. Some of them 
were then deeply concerned for the salvation 
of their souls ; but it was not until "Wednesday 


afternoon, that we knew how powerfully the 
Spirit of God had been at work. The meetins: 
which we held with the seminarists, at that 
time was one of the most solemn meetings 
which I ever attended. One of them, a girl of 
high caste, and of a very good family, said to 
her companions in that meeting, " My sisters. 
I have been a proud one among you. I hope 
that if you ever see me proud again, you will 
tell me of it. I used to tell the missionaries, 
that I had given myself to the Saviour, but I 
had not done it." Another of the girls burst 
into tears, and cried out aloud. As she could 
not restrain her feelings, and did not wish to 
disturb the assembly, she arose and left it. 
She retired to one of the prayer-rooms adjoin- 
ing the seminary, there to weep alone. She, 
however, was not left alone. Mr. Poor, one of 
my missionary associates, followed her, and 
endeavored to administer the consolations of 
the Gospel to her ; but she refused to be com- 
forted. All her distress seemed to arise from 
a single source. '' I told you a falsehood," 
.said she, " last Monday, in saying that I liad 
dedicated myself to the Saviour, when I had 
not." Perhaps she thought at that time, that 


she had thus dedicated herself to the Saviour, 
but afterwards found that she had deceived 
herself. In this v^Tetched state of mind, she 
continued until half-past ten o'clock that night, 
when she came into Mr. Spaulding's house, 
where I then was, and wished to know what 
she must do to be saved. She was told, as she 
had often been told before, that she must dedi- 
cate herself entirely to her Saviour. She went 
away, and returned the same night at about 
half-past eleven o'clock, saying, that she had 
found Him. 

" Friends, is not my case amazing ? 
What a Saviour I have found," 

My dear young friends, are there any of you 
who have never given your hearts to Christ? 
If so, let me entreat you to follow tjie example 
of that dear little girl of whom I have now 
been speaking. She found it to be necessary 
to give her heart to the Saviour, and I hope 
that she did give it to him. that you too 
might give up your hearts to him. Alas, if you 
do not, you must soon go down to eternal burn- 
ings, where you will be constrained to cry out. 
Lost, lost, lost for ever ! Be careful, my dear 


children, be careful that this young girl docs 
not rise up against you in the last day, and 
condemn you. She must do so — she will do so, 
if you do not, like her, choose Christ as your 
portion. But I am digressing, and must go 
back to the point I left. 

The next day, one of our missionary sisters, 
who had lately reached Ceylon from America, 
came to Oodooville, to witness the nature of 
the work which she heard was in progress at 
that place. As she was entering Mr. Spauld- 
ing's house, she was met by one of the most 
consistent church-members of the seminary, 
who declared that she had lost her hope of be- 
ing a Christian. Perhaps this church-member 
was disposed to write bitter things against her- 
self, because she did not feel all that warmth 
in religion which marked the conduct of those 
who, at that time, were indulging the hope 
that they had passed from death to life. After 
the sister to whom I alluded had been in the 
liouse a little while, she requested Mrs. Spauld- 
ing to allow her to have an interview with 
such of the girls as were entertaining a hope 
of their interest in the Saviour. These were 
twenty-two in number. This interview was 


granted. As she knew nothing about the 
Tamul language, I acted as her interpreter. 
Through me, she requested the girls to give a 
statement of their feelings. One of them arose, 
and said, " I feel as happy as an angel. I feel 
joys that I can express to no one but my Sav- 
iour ; and I am just as certain that my sins are 
forgiven, as if I had sent up a karduthaase," that 
is, a letter to heaven, " and received an answer 
to it." Another of the girls said, that the 
missionaries had often talked with her about 
her dedicating herself to the Saviour, but that 
she did not then know what it meant. '' I now 
know," added she, '' what it means, for God 
has taught it to me." Another of the girls 
said, '' Though they put me in the fire, I will 
never forsake the Saviour." 

Now, my dear children, I must bid you fare- 
well. Probably I shall never see you, unless 
you come to this heathen land, until I meet 
you at the judgment-seat of Christ. If you do 
not become missionaries, most of you will prob- 
ably die, and be buried where you now are. 
Probably I shall die in this heathen land. But 
we shall not always sleep in our graves. Af- 
ter a little season, the archangel's trumpet will 


sound, and you in America, and I in India, 
shall bear his voice proclaiming. Awake, ye 
dead, and come to judgment. And we shall 
all at once rise from our graves, and stand be- 
fore our Judge, And where shall I then see 
you ? Shall I see any of you on the left hand 
of Christ, and hear him say, '' Depart, ye 
cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the 
devil and his angels?" 0, if I should hear 
that dreadful sentence pronounced against you, 
how would my heart die within me. How 
could I bear to hear it. Oh, I could not — I 
could not bear to hear it. My dear children, 
if you are yet out of Christ, I entreat you, at 
this very moment^ to lay down this book, and 
throw yourselves at the feet of your Saviour. 
Tell him, that you are lost sinners, deserving 
to be cast into everlasting burnings. Tell him, 
that though you have been wicked children, 
you will leave off your wickedness, and be his 
for ever. Plead with him, with as much ear- 
nestness as a drowning man would plead with 
you to save him, to give you the influences of 
his Holy Spirit, to create within you a clean 
heart, and renew within you a right spirit, 
without which you are eternally undone ; and 


continue to plead, until he pardons you, and 
receives you as his children. By all the suf- 
ferings of the Son of God, by all the joys of 
heaven, by all the torments of hell, by the 
solemnities of your dying bed, by the value of 
your immortal souls, ivhich^ if once lost^ must 
be lost for ever, I beseech you thus immedi- 
ately to throw yourselves at his feet, and plead 
with him to make you his. Neglect this duty — 
neglect giving yourselves to Christ, even for 
one minute, and it may be, that you will be 
lost, vea. LOST for ever. 

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